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ItemArtigoCirculating thyroid hormone levels in young pregnant rats and their fetuses: Effect of malnutrition(Karger, 1989-01-01) Mello, M. A. Rostom de; Oliveira-Filho, R. M.; Cury, L.; Souza Valle, L. B.; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)In order to evaluate some factors likely to be involved in the maternal and fetal growth impairment due to alimentary protein deficiency, the circulating levels of triiodothyronine (T 3) and thyroxine (T 4) were studied in 4 young (45-day-old) female rat groups: control and malnourished, both nonpregnant and pregnant; similarly schedules groups were studied using adult (100-day-old) rats. Circulating levels of T 4 were higher in nonpregnant, malnourished young rats in their corresponding controls. T 3 levels were higher in young malnourished animals and lower in adult malnourished animals, nonpregnant or pregnant, as compared to controls. Pups from young malnourished mothers showed significantly lower birth weights than those from controls. The present results suggest that there are age differences in thyroid function, as affected by protein-calorie malnutrition in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. On the other hand, the circulating thyroid hormone levels were not importantly affected by the mother dietary protein restriction under our experimental conditions. ItemArtigoInfluence of protein-calorie malnutrition on reproductive performance of young and mature rats(1989-12-01) De Mello, M. A.R.; Cury, L.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The effect on reproduction and fetal growth of a protein-deficient diet administration during pregnancy was studied in young and adult rats. Young (50-55 days old) and adult (90-100 days old) pregnant or nonpregnant rats were fed a normal diet (25% protein) or a protein-deficient diet (6% protein) during pregnancy or for a 22-day period (nonpregnant rats). All females were weighed during the experiment and body length measured in the young rats. After parturition, pups were counted, sexed and individually weighed. Litter size, number of stillbirths and presence of body lesions in the neonates were also recorded. Alimentary protein deficiency caused reduction in weight gain during pregnancy and in the postpartum period in young and adult rats. Pups from protein deficient dams weighed less at birth than the pups of control dams, although litter size was unaltered. Pups from young malnourished dams tended to weigh less than those from adult malnourished dams. The incidence of stillbirths was higher in malnourished rats, the highest values occurring in the adult group. These results suggest that alimentary protein deficiency during pregnancy in young rats reduces maternal weight gain, presumably reducing nutrient storage. This may cause fetal/maternal competition for nutrients leading to retardation of both maternal and fetal growth. Growth impairment may be an adaptative process, assuring fetal survival. ItemArtigoEffects of protein-calorie malnutrition on endocrine pancreatic function in young pregnant rats.(1989-12-01) de-Mello, M. A.; Cury, L.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Oral glucose tolerance test (GTT), insulin secretion after oral glucose load and the insulin to glucose ratio (I/G) during GTT were measured in young (45-50 days old) pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a normal (25%) or low (6%) protein diet during pregnancy or for a 22-day period. Fasting blood glucose was lower in protein-deficient rats and basal plasma insulin was higher in pregnant control rats than in non-pregnant controls. Protein-deficient rats were intolerant to the oral glucose load. The I/G ratio during GTT was higher in control pregnant rats than in other rats. These results show that young malnourished pregnant rats are glucose intolerant and do not show pregnancy hyperinsulinemia probably as a result of decreased pancreatic capacity to release insulin in response to stimulation. ItemArtigoRegulatory mechanisms of blood lactate production during exercise in man.(1989-12-01) Palma, M. S.; Kokubun, E.; Sibuya, C. Y.; Santos, J. W.; Freire, P. M.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)During cycloergometric exercise at progressively increasing loads, blood lactate concentration increased about 12-fold. Pyruvate concentration decreased initially (for loads of 50-75 W), increased with loads of 75 to 125 W and then decreased again until the end of exercise. The malate concentration increased abruptly between 50 and 75 W, followed by a slow decline; citrate increased about nine-fold as the exercise load was increased to 125 W and then fell sharply. Thus, the production of lactate during low-intensity exercise seems to occur by the mass-action effect caused by enhanced glycolysis, whereas with moderate loads the glycolysis rate is very much reduced and most of the lactate production seems to involve the action of the malate-aspartate shuttle. For high-intensity exercise, both mechanisms appear to participate in lactate production. ItemArtigoEFFECT OF MATERNAL EXERCISE DURING PREGNANCY ON MATERNAL BODY COMPONENTS AND FETAL GROWTH IN YOUNG AND ADULT-RATS(Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC), 1990-01-01) Demello, MAR; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp) ItemArtigo5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-INDUCED ALTERATIONS OF OXIDATIVE-METABOLISM IN SEDENTARY AND EXERCISE-TRAINED RATS(Amer Physiological Soc, 1992-01-01) Pereira, B.; Curi, R.; Kokubun, Eduardo [UNESP]; Bechara, EJH; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a heme precursor that accumulates in acute intermittent porphyria patients and lead-exposed individuals, has previously been shown to autoxidize with generation of reactive oxygen species and to cause in vitro oxidative damage to rat liver mitochondria. We now demonstrate that chronically ALA-treated rats (40 mg/kg body wt every 2 days for 15 days) exhibit decreased mitochondrial enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase, citrate synthase) in liver and soleus (type I, red) and gastrocnemius (type IIb, white) muscle fibers. Previous adaptation of rats to endurance exercise, indicated by augmented (cytosolic) CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (mitochondrial) Mn-SOD activities in several organs, does not protect the animals against liver and soleus mitochondrial damage promoted by intraperitoneal injections of ALA. This is suggested by loss of citrate synthase and Mn-SOD activities and elevation of serum lactate levels, concomitant to decreased glycogen content in soleus and the red portion of gastrocnemius (type IIa) fibers of both sedentary and swimming-trained ALA-treated rats. In parallel, the type IIb gastrocnemius fibers, which are known to obtain energy mainly by glycolysis, do not undergo these biochemical changes. Consistently, ALA-treated rats under swimming training reach fatigue significantly earlier than the control group. These results indicate that ALA may be an important prooxidant in vivo. ItemArtigoEffect of acute footshock stress on the responsiveness of the isolated rat tail artery to phenylephrine and epinephrine(1992-01-01) Zanesco, A.; De-Moraes, S.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp) ItemArtigoProlactin induces maturation of glucose sensing mechanisms in cultured neonatal rat islets(1993-01-01) Boschero, Antonio C.; Crepaldi, Silvia C.; Carneiro, Everardo M. [UNESP]; Delattre, Edson; Atwater, Illani; National Institutes of Health; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The effects of PRL treatment on insulin content and secretion, and86Rb and45Ca fluxes from neonatal rat islets maintained in culture for 7-9 days were studied. PRL treatment enhanced islet insulin content by 40% and enhanced early insulin secretion evoked by 16.7 mM glucose. Insulin release stimulated by oxotremorine-M, a muscarinic agonist, in the presence of glucose (8.3 or 16.7 mM) was unchanged by PRL treatment. However, PRL treatment potentiated phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of the above glucose concentrations. PRL treatment potentiated the reduction in86Rb efflux induced by glucose or tolbutamide and enhanced the increase in86Rb efflux evoked by diazoxide. PRL treatment slightly potentiated the increment in45Ca uptake induced by high concentrations of K+, but failed to affect the increment evoked by 16.7 mM glucose. Since glucose-induced45Ca uptake was not affected by PRL, we suggest that the enhancement in first phase insulin secretion evoked by glucose in the PRL-treated islets occurs at a step in the secretory process that may involve protein kinase-C. These data further support observations that PRL treatment increases islet sensitivity to glucose. © 1993 by The Endocrine Society. ItemArtigoEducação Física no Ensino de 1° e 2° Graus: Para que Serve?(Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 1994) Barros, José Maria de Camargo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)O ser humano possui uma natural necessidade de movimento e atividade física, desde o nascimento até a idade avançada (Cumming, 1977). Na sociedade atual, o fenômeno da automação, fruto do desenvolvimento tecnológico e econômico, leva os indivíduos ao sedentarismo, dificultando o desenvolvimento normal de suas potencialidades físicas e emocionais. ItemArtigoRecursos Cognitivos dos Professores de Educação Física(Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 1994) Albuquerque, Leila Marrach Basto de; Darido, Suraya Cristina [UNESP]; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci [UNESP]; Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)Este artigo apresenta o resultado de uma pesquisa com professores de Educação Física da rede pública. Procuramos identificar as fontes de conhecimento que orientam a sua prática profissional. Concluímos que este grupo está preso à sua formação historicamente datada, à acomodação à situação da Educação Física na escola e a própria experiência profissional. Isto o impede de procurar os recursos da ciência para implementar uma educação Física mais competente e sintonizada com as novas tendências pedagógicas. ItemArtigoTraços de uma Cultura no Ensino Formal(Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 1994) Aguiar, Carmen Maria [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)O trabalho aborda uma experiência com educação escolar em uma comunidade de negros, que vive semi-isolada no sudeste do Estado do Tocantins, na região norte do Brasil, onde o sitema matriarcal representa apenas uma das diferenças entre sua cultura e a dos indígenas e dos brancos sertanejos brasileiros, que, como eles, vivem na zona rural. A implantação de uma escola municipal na comunidade, sem levar em conta as especificidades de seu modo de vida, entrou em choque com o processo informal de transmição e aquisição de conhecimentos, perpetuados através de várias gerações. A pesquisa realizada através da observação participante no contexto de um estudo etnográfico, levanta os pontos conflitantes mais significativos - contudo, metodologia e procedimentos básicos - do ensino escolar, que muitas vezes, como no caso da Barra, afastam dos objetivos mesmos a que se propõe alcançar. ItemArtigoEffects of caffeine on the metabolism of rats exercising by swimming(1994-01-01) Denadai, B. S. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Several studies have demonstrated that caffeine improves endurance exercise performance but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Possibilities include increased free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation with consequent sparing of muscle glycogen as well as enhancement of neuromuscular function during exercise. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of caffeine on liver and muscle glycogen of 3-month old, male Wistar rats (250-300 g) exercising by swimming. Caffeine (5 mg/kg) dissolved in saline (CAF) or 0.9% sodium chloride (SAL) was administered by oral intubation (1 μl/g) to fed rats 60 min before exercise. The rats (N=8-10 per group) swam bearing a load corresponding to 5% body weight for 30 or 60 min. FFA levels were significantly elevated to 0.475±0.10 mEq/l in CAF compared to 0.369±0.06 mEq/l in SAL rats at the beginning of exercise. During exercise, a significant difference in FFA levels between CAF and SAL rats was observed at 30 min (0.325±0.06 vs 0.274±0.05 mEq/l) but not at 60 min (0.424±0.13 vs 0.385±0.10 mEq/l). Blood glucose showed an increase due to caffeine only at the end of exercise (CAF=142.1±27.4 and SAL=120.2±12.9 mg/100 ml). No significant difference in liver or muscle glycogen was observed in CAF as compared to SAL rats, at rest or during exercise. Caffeine increased blood lactate only at the beginning of exercise (CAF=2.13±0.2 and SAL=1.78±0.2 mmol/l). These data indicate that caffeine (5 mg/kg) has no glycogen-sparing effect on rats exercising by swimming even though the FFA levels of CAF rats were significantly higher at the beginning of exercise. ItemArtigoEFFECTS OF INTRAUTERINE AND POSTNATAL PROTEIN-CALORIE MALNUTRITION ON METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS TO EXERCISE IN YOUNG-RATS(Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC), 1994-10-01) Demello, MAR; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)The effect of intrauterine and postnatal protein-calorie malnutrition on the biochemical ability to perform exercise was investigated in young male rats. Malnourished rats were obtained by feeding dams a low-protein (6%) casein-based diet prepared in the laboratory during pregnancy and lactation. Control rats received an isocaloric diet containing 25% protein. The low-protein diet contained additional starch and glucose. At 45 days of age, malnourished rats showed lower body weight, serum protein, albumin and glucose levels, hematocrit values and heart glycogen content but higher circulating free fatty acids and gastrocnemius muscle glycogen than control rats. In response to exercise (50 min of swimming), control rats displayed lower heart, gastrocnemius and liver glycogen levels whereas malnourished rats showed low glycogen levels only in the gastrocnemius muscle. Both control and malnourished rats showed high serum glucose and free fatty acid levels after exercise. In conclusion, protein-calorie malnutrition improved muscle glycogen storage but this substrate was broken down to a greater extent in response to exercise. Malnourished rats were able to perform exercise maintaining high blood glucose levels, as observed in control rats, perhaps as a consequence of the elevated availability of circulating free fatty acids. ItemArtigoEFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON THE METABOLISM OF RATS EXERCISING BY SWIMMING(Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC), 1994-10-01) Denadai, B. S.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)Several studies have demonstrated that caffeine improves endurance exercise performance but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Possibilities include increased free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation with consequent sparing of muscle glycogen as well as enhancement of neuromuscular function during exercise. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of caffeine on liver and muscle glycogen of 3-month old, male Wistar rats (250-300 g) exercising by swimming. Caffeine (5 mg/kg) dissolved in saline (CAF) or 0.9% sodium chloride (SAL) was administered by oral intubation (1 mu l/g) to fed rats 60 min before exercise. The rats (N = and-IO per group) swam bearing a load corresponding to 5% body weight for 30 or 60 min. FFA levels were significantly elevated to 0.475 +/- 0.10 mEq/l in CAF compared to 0.369 +/- 0.06 mEq/l in SAL rats at the beginning of exercise. During exercise, a significant difference in FFA levels between CAF and SAL rats was observed at 30 min (0.325 +/- 0.06 vs 0.274 +/- 0.05 mEq/l) but not at 60 min (0.424 +/- 0.13 vs 0.385 +/- 0.10 mEq/l). Blood glucose showed an increase due to caffeine only at the end of exercise (CAF = 142.1 +/- 27.4 and SAL = 120.2 +/- 12.9 mg/100 ml). No significant difference in liver or muscle glycogen was observed in CAF as compared to SAL rats, at rest or during exercise. Caffeine increased blood lactate only at the beginning of exercise (CAF = 2.13 +/- 0.2 and SAL = 1.78 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). These data indicate that caffeine (5 mg/kg) has no glycogen-sparing effect on rats exercising by swimming even though the FFA levels of CAF rats were significantly higher at the beginning of exercise. ItemArtigoEffects of protein malnutrition on glucose tolerance in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes(1995-01-01) De-Mello, M. A R [UNESP]; Luciano, E. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)Protein-calorie malnutrition produces glucose intolerance and reduced insulin release in response to glucose. Rats adapted to low- or high-protein diets show an increased resistance to the diabetogenic action of a single dose of streptozotocin or alloxan. To determine the effects of dietary protein level on pancreatic function, we measured serum glucose levels under basal conditions and during the oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed before and after a single dose of alloxan administered to rats fed a 25% or a 6% protein diet for a period of 8 weeks. The incidence of mild hyperglycemia (serum glucose > 250 mg/dl) was greater among the rats fed the 25% protein diet (81%) than among those fed the 6% protein diet (42%). During the GTT performed before alloxan administration the serum glucose levels of the rats fed the 6% protein diet were not found to be significantly different from those of rats fed the 25% protein diet. During the GTT performed after alloxan injection all rats showed intolerance to the substrate (serum glucose > 160 mg/dl 120 min after glucose administration) regardless of whether basal serum glucose was normal or high. In summary, alloxan was less effective in producing basal hyperglycemia in the rats fed the 6% protein diet than in those fed the 25% protein diet but caused glucose intolerance during the oral GTT in both groups. Thus, it seems that feeding a 6% protein diet to rats offers only partial protection against the toxic effects of alloxan. ItemArtigoAMINO-ACID-SEQUENCE OF TSTX-V, AN ALPHA-TOXIN FROM TITYUS-SERRULATUS SCORPION-VENOM, AND ITS EFFECT ON K+ PERMEABILITY OF BETA-CELLS FROM ISOLATED RAT ISLETS OF LANGERHANS(Elsevier B.V., 1995-04-13) Marangoni, S.; Toyama, M. H.; Arantes, E. C.; GIGLIO, JR; Dasilva, C. A.; Carneiro, E. M.; Goncalves, A. A.; Oliveira, B.; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)Highly purified Tityustoxin V (TsTX-V), an alpha-toxin isolated from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus, was obtained by ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose-52. It was shown to be homogeneous by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, N-terminal sequencing (first 39 residues) of the reduced and alkylated protein and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate and tricine. Following enzymatic digestion, the complete amino acid sequence (64 residues) was determined. The sequence showed higher homology with the toxins from the venoms of the North African than with those of the North and South American scorpions. Using the rate of Rb-86(+) release from depolarized rat pancreatic beta-cells as a measure of K+ permeability changes, TsTX-V (5.6 mu g/ml) was found to increase by 2.0-2.4-fold the rate of marker outflow in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. This effect was persistent and slowly reversible, showing similarity to that induced by 100 mu-M veratridine, an agent that increases the open period of Na+ channels, delaying their inactivation. It is suggested that, by extending the depolarized period, TsTX-V indirectly affects beta-cell voltage-dependent K+ channels, thus increasing K+ permeability. ItemArtigoFormação Profissional e Mercado de Trabalho na Educação Física(Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 1996) Deutsch, Silvia [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp) ItemArtigoAvaliação da sintomatologia afetiva e cognitiva de adolescentes epilépticos(1996-06-01) Stela, Florindo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)The present work aimed to study the relationship between epileptic condition and psychological activity. The purpose of this investigation was to identify cognitive complaints and affective disturbs, like depressive disorders, and to compare both with epileptic condition. Forty epileptic adolescents, aged from 13 to 19 years old were analyzed. These patients were a consecutive series of males and females attending the Neuroepilepsy Center from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP, and from lower social-economic background. The methodological procedures included specific questionnaires (a open and a assertive kind), and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Cognitive alterations like thinking slowness or memorizing complaints in many patients, and affective disorders like depressive disturbs in 82.5% were the basic findings. The results also showed association between frequency of seizures and depressive disturbs; and between chronicity of epileptic condition and depressive disturbs. The discussion of these data suggests a relationship of epileptic condition with psychological reactions. We concluded that it is necessary to elevate the self-concept of these depressive patients in order to reduce their psychic suffering. ItemArtigoEbselen and cytokine-induced nitric oxide synthase expression in insulin-producing cells(1996-12-13) De-Mello, Maria A. R. [UNESP]; Flodström, Malin; Eizirik Decio L., Decio L.; Uppsala University; Vrije Universite Brussels; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Vrije Universiteit BrusselsInterleukin-1 (IL-1) may be a mediator of β-cell damage in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The IL-1 mechanism of action on insulin-producing cells probably includes activation of the transcription nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), increased transcription of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the subsequent production of nitric oxide (NO). Reactive oxygen intermediates, particularly H2O2, have been proposed as second messengers for NF-κB activation. In the present study, we tested whether ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one), a glutathione peroxidase mimicking compound, could counteract the effects of IL-1β, H2O2 and alloxan in rat pancreatic islets and in the rat insulinoma cell line RINm5F (RIN cells). Some of these experiments were also reproduced in human pancreatic islets. Ebselen (20 μM) prevented the increase in nitrite production by rat islets exposed to IL-1β for 6 hr and induced significant protection against the acute inhibitory effects of alloxan or H2O2 exposure, as judged by the preserved glucose oxidation rates. However, ebselen failed to prevent the increase in nitrite production and the decrease in glucose oxidation and insulin release by rat islets exposed to IL-1β for 24 hr. Ebselen prevented the increase in nitrite production by human islets exposed for 14 hr to a combination of cytokines (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ). In RIN cells, ebselen counteracted both the expression of iNOS mRNA and the increase in nitrite production induced by 6 hr exposure to IL-β but failed to block IL-1β-induced iNOS expression following 24 hr exposure to the cytokine. Moreover, ebselen did not prevent IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation. As a whole, these data indicate that ebselen partially counteracts cytokine-induced NOS activation in pancreatic β-cells, an effect not associated with inhibition of NF-κB activation. ItemArtigoSino-aortic denervation causes right atrial beta adrenoceptor down-regulation(Williams & Wilkins, 1997-02-01) Zanesco, A.; SpadariBratfisch, R. C.; Barker, L. A.; LOUISIANA STATE UNIV; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); DEPT PHYSIOL & BIOPHYS; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)Rat isolated right atria obtained 1 wk after sinoaortic denervation were less sensitive to the chronotropic actions of beta-agonists than were tissues obtained from animals that underwent sham surgery or no surgery at all. The potencies, but not the maximal responses for two high efficacy agonists, norepinephrine and isoproterenol, were reduced about 3- to 4-fold. Sinoaortic denervation (SAD) caused about a 3-fold decrease in potency and about a 60% decrease in maximal response for a low efficacy agonist, prenalterol. The changes in the actions of these agonists occurred in the absence of any changes in the subtype of beta receptor mediating the chronotropic response. The results of analyses of the data for prenalterol showed that SAD caused a decrease in the operational efficacy of this agonist without any changes in its K-D value for beta-1 adrenoceptors. SAD had no effect on the responses of the tissue to blockade of uptake 1 and uptake 2, suggesting no compensatory changes in the removal processes caused the decreased potency. The results of radioligand binding assays showed that SAD caused a decrease in the maximal binding of I-125-cyanopindolol without altering its K-D. Also, the results of competition binding assays confirmed the lack of effect of SAD on the K-D for prenalterol. The SAD-induced changes in the actions of agonists acting at right atrial beta-1 receptors were caused by a down-regulation of beta-1 adrenoceptors, which probably occurred in response to SAD-induced increases in sympathetic tone.