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ItemTrabalho apresentado em eventoCellular automata-based spatial dynamic modeling for analyzing urban land use change(2013-08-15) Rossetti, Lucimari A. F. G. [UNESP]; Dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio [UNESP]; De Almeida, Claudia Maria; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)This paper analyzes land use change in Rio Claro City and its surroundings, located in the southeastern state of Sao Paulo, in the period from 1988 to 1995, using air-borne digital imagery and a cellular automata model. The simulation experiment was carried out in the Dinamica EGO platform and the results revealed a constrained urban sprawl, resulting from both the densification of residential areas implemented in previous years and the economic recession that led to an internal financial crisis in Brazil during the early 1990s. The simulation outputs were validated using a multi-resolution procedure based on a fuzzy similarity index and showed a satisfactory fitness in relation to the historical reference data. © 2013 IEEE. ItemTrabalho apresentado em eventoLidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil(2010-12-01) Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard [UNESP]; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; Dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio [UNESP]; Andre, Iara R. [UNESP]; Garcia, Gilberto [UNESP]; Lopes, F. J S; Mariano, Glauber L.; Da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of São Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of São Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol echoes and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatão) and others from urban sources (São Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to correlate with air quality and meteorological indicators and quantities. In this paper we should focus on the preliminary results of the Raman LIDAR system and its derived aerosol optical quantities. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. ItemTrabalho apresentado em eventoPhysics teaching and history of teaching: discoveries from the study of ancient didactic experiments(2022-01-01) Lino, N. T.; Ramos, E. M.F. [UNESP]; Benetti, B. [UNESP]; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The present research had as its main objective an analysis of curricular transformations that have occurred in the physics teaching, specifically in the topics of Fluid Mechanics, through an examination of old instruments no longer in use in a physics laboratory of a Brazilian school. The study begins with the intention of giving a name and meaning to an old dusty instrument found in the laboratory, the Nicholson's Areometer. From this work of identifying the materials, we realized that experiments on Fluid Mechanicsfound in the laboratory had disappeared from current textbooks and official documents, showing changes in the Brazilian physics curricula. We consider these changes as one of the factors that contributed to the disuse of laboratory equipment today. For the survey and analysis of laboratory materials, a qualitative, exploratory and documentary research was carried out. From this research, the feasibility of resuming disused laboratories and materials as tools for physics teaching was evidenced, and this re-analysis movement may represent a first step to assist teachers in the effective use of such materials in their schools. Finally, we found that some of the reasons mentioned by teachers for not using experimental activities, such as lack of space and equipment, were not identified in the school studied. ItemTrabalho apresentado em eventoUSLE C factor determined by multi-temporal AVHRR/NOAA-14 data(2000-01-01) Cavalli, Antonio Carlos; Garcia, Gilberto José [UNESP]; Zullo Jumor, Jurandir; Lombardi Neto, Francisco; Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais (CSRA); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)This paper presents a methodology for the integration of AVHRR/NOAA-14 sensor data and USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) for identifying soil degradation and mapping erosion risks. The study area was the Piracicaba river watershed (5,457 km 2) located in São Paulo State, Brazil. Thirty percent of the region is covered with sugarcane plantations, which are the raw-material provider both for cane-sugar mills as for carburant-alcohol distilleries. To apply USLE equation, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used. The USLE C factor (use and management) indicates the soil protection provided by the vegetative cover and it changes gradually with the biomass yield. NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) was selected to determine C factor since it is commonly used due its high sensitivity in monitoring green biomass. Channels 1 and 2 digital counts from seven AVHRR multi-temporal images from may/1996 to September/1997 were transformed from grey levels to percent of reflectance, since reflectance data are more suitable to get NDVI. Radiometric calibration was applied following the procedures of NOAA/NESDIS (National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service). Through the NDVI data it was possible to characterise the sugarcane biomass growth and the values of predicting soil losses in a two-harvest period. Five classes of erosion risks were determined: (Class 1: 50.6% of sugarcane crop area; Class 2: 20.6%; Class 3: 24.3%; Class 4: 4.1%; Class 5: 0.3%). The correlation between erosion risk classes and soil types showed that sugarcane is mostly cultivated on soils with better physical characteristics, preferably on less steep slopes.