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ItemCapítulo de livro1.39 - Intestinal Dysbiosis in Autoimmune Diseases(2022-01-01) de Oliveira, Gislane Lelis Vilela [UNESP]; Humanities and Exact Sciences; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Evidence from animal models and humans suggests the role of intestinal dysbiosis in autoimmune disease development. Dysbiosis is associated with decreased microbiota function and diversity, increased intestinal permeability and pathobionts, and deregulated immune response. The proposed mechanisms to connect dysbiosis with autoimmunity include molecular mimicry, bystander T-cell activation, epitope spreading, post-translational modification of luminal proteins, and amplification by inflammatory cytokines. Probiotic bacteria favor the balance and maintenance of a healthy microbiota and epithelial barrier and directly impact systemic immunity, supporting their use in immune-mediated diseases. This article describes studies concerning dysbiosis and probiotics in autoimmune diseases. ItemCapítulo de livro21st century skills and competences: Challenges with a focus in information and communication(2021-01-15) Belluzzo, Regina Celia Baptista[UNESP]; Rosetto, Marcia; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)It is remarkable how quickly social and technological transformations have been occurring since the end of the 20th century, evolving in different stages and subsequently expanded in this 21st century. These changes have been promoting new social and behavioral structures and require different skills and competences to deal with the impacts and challenges that result from them. The chapter presents a brief discussion on the importance and relevance of what skills and competencies are required in the 21st century, the definitions and concepts found in the literature, and proposes a three-dimensional view that consists of the dimensions of information, communication, and ethics and their social impact in the digital world. ItemCapítulo de livroA 360° GLOBAL PERITONEAL DIALYSIS THERAPY REALITY: CLINICAL EXPERIENCE AND EVIDENCE(2021-01-01) Paniagua, Ramón; Diaz, Marcela Ávila; Al-Hwiesh, Abdullah Khalaf; Ponce, Daniela [UNESP]; Zamoner, Welder [UNESP]; Balbi, André Luís [UNESP]; Rosman, Johan; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social; Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Nephrologist Royal Perth Hospital; Karolinska Institutet; Latin American Chapter (LAC-DD)-International Society for Peritoneal DialysisMexico needed to preserve peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a cheaper and accessible treatment without requiring large investments in hemodialysis (HD) facilities. The Mexican Social Security Institute (Spanish: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social) (IMSS) facilitated a randomized, multi-center clinical trial, the Adequacy of PD in Mexico (ADEMEX) study, which questioned the use of small molecule clearance to measure PD adequacy and thereby promoted a return to comprehensive clinical evaluation as the most efficient dialysis measure. PD is underutilized in Saudi Arabia and in the Middle East; among the reasons, lack of pre-dialysis education programs and nephrologists expert in catheter insertion, later referral and expansion of outsourcing HD. The King Fahad University Hospital program must be considered one of the most prolific PD centers carrying out clinical studies on the subject. Interest in PD use to manage patients with AKI has been increasing recently. Today there is solid clinical evidence that hypervolemia, hyperpotassemia, acidosis, uremia and hypercatabolism can be well managed by PD in different scenarios. Many of these studies have been performed in a small Brazilian university city, Botucatu. The dilemmas of using PD in aboriginal patients in Australia is discussed here. The focus is on aboriginal people in very remote areas. Some personal views are presented as to the causes of the gap between outcomes for aboriginal and nonaboriginal patients and how the many failed attempts to close the gap could be addressed. ItemCapítulo de livro36Cl contribution for dating groundwaters from the Guarani Aquifer System(2020-05-01) Bonotto, Daniel Marcos [UNESP]; Fifield, Leslie Keith; Eslamian, Saeid; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Australian National University; Isfahan University of TechnologyThe field of groundwater age dating nowadays considers a groundwater sample not as water that recharged the flow regime at a point in the past, but as a mixture of waters that have resided in the subsurface for varying lengths of time. This recognition resolves longstanding inconsistencies encountered in age dating and suggests new ways to carry out age dating studies. Groundwater age dating takes advantage of the known decay rates of radioactive isotopes, the timing of the introduction into the atmosphere of isotopes from nuclear testing or reactors, or the history of the release of manufactured gases to estimate the age of a groundwater sample. 36Cl has properties which make it suitable for the study of confined groundwaters. Its long half-life (301 ka) and the fact that chloride is not removed from solution by mineral interaction or secondary mineral formation would, in principle, permit the estimation of very long groundwater residence times. This chapter reports the use of the 36Cl method for estimating the groundwater residence time in the northern part of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in Brazil. It underlies 1.2M km2 in the Paraná sedimentary basin of South America and is an important source of water for industry, agriculture and domestic supplies. The isotopic database was set after collecting and analyzing rainfall and groundwater samples coming from São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul states, helping to understand the dynamics of this groundwater system and its sustainability. The ages varied between 43.8 ka and 2.0 Ma that exceed the range of 30-40 ka from the conventional 14C dating, thus, expanding the results obtained from previous work in the region, including other radio-isotope analyses. ItemCapítulo de livro5.07 - The Potential of Vegetal Biomass for Biomolecules Production(2022-01-01) Antunes, F. A.F.; Rocha, T. M.; Philippini, R. R.; Martiniano, S. E.; Prado, C. A.; Mier-Alba, E.; Hernandez-Perez, A. F.; Jofre, F. M.; Abdeshahian, P.; Ribeaux, D. R.; Castro-Alonso, M. J.; Balbino, T. R.; Dussán, K. J. [UNESP]; Da Silva, D. D.V. [UNESP]; De Souza, J. P. [UNESP]; Sanchez-Muñoz, S.; Reyes-Guzman, R.; Ingle, A. P.; Felipe, M. G.A.; Santos, J. C.; Da Silva, S. S.; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The awareness of global warming, fossil scarcity and pollution are some current eminent burdens which are necessary to be acknowledged in order to find alternative solutions to mitigate its detrimental impacts. Taking this into account, this article focuses on displaying a historical overview, critical trends, recent challenges and employment of vegetal biomass as feedstock for the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of promising microbial-derived molecules through fermentative strategies. Among, bioethanol, xylitol, biopolymers, biosurfactants, organic acids and others such as butanol, butanediol, single cell protein and biopigments will be elucidated. Nevertheless, each one of these biomolecules presents specific applications. ItemCapítulo de livro5.18 - Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Algae Biofuels(2022-01-01) Bradley, Tom; Ling-Chin, Janie; Maga, Daniel; Speranza, Lais Galileu [UNESP]; Roskilly, Anthony Paul; Charles Parsons Technology Centre; Durham University; and Energy Technology UMSICHT; Universidade do Algarve; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The environmental impacts of producing biofuels from algae include not only climate change but also other impacts. Throughout the whole life cycle, neglecting any significant impacts and shifting any environmental burdens from one impact to another must be avoided. This chapter presents life cycle assessment as a tool for the purpose and existing literature on biofuels produced from algae, relevant LCA, and biofuel production facilities. It indicates that a far greater evidence base, methodological harmonization, and greater use of industrial data are required to allow LCA to become a truly valuable tool for the development of algae biofuels. ItemCapítulo de livroAbdominoplasty after massive weight loss(2016-01-01) Mendes, Flavio [UNESP]; Viterbo, Fausto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)Body contouring surgery has experienced a true resurgence with the popularization of surgical treatment for morbid obesity. In recent years, a new and growing population of patients with extremely challenging deformities has been visiting plastic surgery clinics, demanding a new approach to techniques in search of better results. Some procedures that had been practically abandoned with the advent of liposuction are now returning because of the devastating nature of these deformities. The main concept to be incorporated by plastic surgeons in abdominal approaches to post-bariatric patients is to avoid isolated evaluation and intervention in the abdomen without considering associated deformities in the lower body. Each patient has a different reality and even specific genetic characteristics, but the general and circumferential character of the physiopathology and biodynamic deformities will always influence body contouring as a whole. Even when isolated intervention is chosen by the medical team, this decision must result from full knowledge of the overall contouring situation. Preoperative planning is fundamental in this process and must be based on the complete physical exam, with vigorous palpation of tissues and simulation of probable correction vectors as well as the patient’s opinion. All of this careful surgical planning becomes evident in surgical site marking, which should be done carefully and calmly, preferably the night before surgery to avoid stress and mistakes resulting from marking in the operating room before anesthesia. Photographic and video records of both the physical examination and site marking provide essential support for retrospective assessments of the results obtained. Some details of the surgical technique may also make the difference in caring for this type of patient. Although tissue resection can be extensive in the lower body, there is no need for larger detachments of remaining flaps. This means that the mobility of the covering resulting from the reorganization of the superficial fascia system permits large tissue advances, when correction vectors are found, safely and with circulatory viability. This abdominal approach without detachment was originally proposed by Avelar (Rev Bras Cir 88/89(1/6):3-20, 1999; Aesthet Surg J 22(1):16-25, 2002) and is naturally applicable in the post-bariatric patient since weight loss provokes the reduction of subcutaneous tissue and makes flap mobilization easier, with less risky maneuvers. Anterior Transverse Approach - This technique is used for abdominoplasty in conventional patients, but is rarely recommended in the post-bariatric population. Although this approach is efficient in patients with deformities resulting from multiple pregnancies and is restricted to the anterior aspect of the abdomen, the anterior transverse approach tends to be insufficient for treating more general loose and circumferential tissue. Circumferential Approach - The objective of this procedure is to expand the anterior transverse resection of the lower abdomen to the flanks and lower dorsum, removing an actual belt of loose tissue in order to remove remaining tissue and also lift the anterior and lateral base of the thighs, as well as the gluteal region. Combined Anterior Approach - Also known as “anchor” or “fleur de lis” abdominoplasty, this technique combines longitudinal resection with the anterior transverse approach specifically to correct the horizontal excess abdominal tissue which is normally present in post-bariatric patients. Combined Circumferential Approach - This technique also combines anterior longitudinal resection with the circumferential approach specifically to correct horizontal excess abdominal tissue which is typically present in the post-bariatric population. ItemCapítulo de livroAbsorption cross sections of low energy photons for the Schwarzschild and extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in arbitrary dimensions higher than three(2006-01-01) Crispino, Luís C. B.; Higuchi, Atsushi; Matsas, George E. A. [UNESP]; Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA); University of York; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)We examine the electromagnetic field quantization in static spherically symmetric spacetimes of arbitrary n dimensions in a modified Feynman gauge. This gauge is closely related to the A0 = 0 gauge and reduces to the Feynman gauge in Minkowski spacetime. The electromagnetic field equations in a black hole spacetime are not decoupled and are difficult to analyze in the Lorenz gauge. However, if we require the field to be divergence free on a (n – 2)-sphere (the spherical Coulomb gauge), the equations for the physical modes reduce to decoupled scalar field equations. Furthermore, solutions in terms of familiar special functions can be found in the low-energy regime. By using the electromagnetic field modes obtained in this modified Feynman gauge we calculate the low energy absorption cross sections of photons for the Schwarzschild and extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in arbitrary dimensions higher than three. ItemCapítulo de livroAccumulation by Land Rent and Territorial Disputes in a Brazilian Agricultural Frontier(2022-01-01) Fernandes, Bernardo Mançano [UNESP]; Frederico, Samuel [UNESP]; Pereira, Lorena Izá [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Land grabbing has changed the agrarian question on a world scale, much more intensely from the first decade of the twenty-first century with the financialisation of agriculture, producing the global agrarian question. In Brazil, a new ‘administrative region’—MATOPIBA—was created mainly to meet the territorialised interests of financial capital in the production of flexible commodities. ItemCapítulo de livroAcetylcholinesterase (AChE) Activity in Embryos of Zebrafish(2021-01-01) Gravato, Carlos; Abe, Flávia Renata; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma [UNESP]; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Domingues, Inês; Universidade de Lisboa; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade de Aveiro; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a useful biomarker for organophosphate and carbamate pesticides exposure. The inhibition of this enzyme has been associated with neurotoxicity and alterations at higher levels of biological organization, such as behavior and development impairments. In this chapter, we describe the methodologies for analyses of AChE activity in pools of 96 h of embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using a spectrophotometric method adapted to 96-well microtiter plates. ItemCapítulo de livroAchieving environmental sustainability with ecodesign practices and tools for new product development(2019-01-01) Jugend, Daniel [UNESP]; Pinheiro, Marco Antonio Paula [UNESP]; Luiz, João Victor Rojas [UNESP]; Junior, Angelo Varandas; Cauchick-Miguel, Paulo Augusto; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC)Ecodesign is recognized as the practice of reducing environmental impacts in the early phases of new product development (NPD) as well as the product life cycle. It contributes to the development of environmentally sustainable products (eco-friendly products) and thus to environmental sustainability. Nevertheless, studies have pointed out difficulties in adopting ecodesign for practitioners and scholars. To contribute to this subject, this chapter discusses ecodesign practices and tools from three NPD perspectives. The first emphasizes the importance of integrating ecodesign in the process of NPD and product portfolio decision-making. The second perspective deals with methods and tools that foster practical applications of ecodesign, such as environmental quality function deployment; the materials, energy, and toxicity matrix; and the ecodesign checklist. Third, predominant issues that motivate ecodesign are discussed in addition to some barriers to adopting it. This chapter also describes some examples of ecodesign research and applications in Brazilian companies. ItemCapítulo de livroAction mode of triazines and toxic effects on vertebrates(2013-01-01) Severi-Aguiar, G. D.C.; Silva-Zacarin, E. C.M.; Campos-Pereira, F. D. [UNESP]; Alves, A. A.; UNIARARAS; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Triazines are the family of herbicides that include atrazine, ametryn and simazine that are widely used in Brazil and can contaminate groundwater. Cattle can accumulate herbicides in their body through ingestion plants infested with these compounds and one of the ways, by which, human beings are exposed to atrazine is through cattle meat and milk consumption. The toxicity of these compounds can be explained mainly by their interaction with microsomal biotransformation processes. The herbicides per se or their metabolites or the secondary products of oxidative stress interact with biomolecules such proteins and DNA affecting a lot of cellular types. Cellular effects of chemicals might involve recruitment or de-repression of cell death mechanisms. Whether a cell survives or dies in the presence of a chemical insult is often determined by proliferative status, repair enzyme capacity, and the ability to induce proteins that either promote or inhibit the cell death process. In this chapter we will present an extensive bibliographical review about this herbicide class focusing its effects on vertebrates, looking for defense cellular mechanisms, at morphological and biochemical levels. ItemCapítulo de livroActive chlorine and chlorine radicals generation by photoelectrochemical oxidation of chloride and its greater efficiency in organic compounds abatement(2011-12-01) Fraga, Luciano Evangelista; Anderson, Marc A.; Sene, Jeosadaque J.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Instituto de Química; University of Wisconsin-MadisonActive chlorine has been widely used in water and wastewater treatment both as adisinfectant and an oxidizing agent. Despite the problems caused due to the production ofby-products, the use of chlorine in water disinfection process remains the primary methodof treatment to destroy pathogens and thereby is used to provide public health protection.The electrochemical oxidation of chlorides in water has long been a very successfulmethod of generating chlorine. Nevertheless, the current methods based onelectrochemical technique present some drawbacks due to the fact that they require theapplication of a high electrochemical potential for oxidizing the chloride ion and thuscompetes with oxygen evolution reaction, which elevates costs associated with thisprocess. The oxidation of chloride at lower potentials by photoelectrocatalysis of chloridehas been proposed as an alternative method, using n-type semiconductor TiO2photoanodes irradiated by UV light. The process involves the formation of chlorineradicals as intermediate, which is a source of more powerful oxidant species than activechlorine and can be successful applied to removal mutagenic/toxic organic compounds.So, the present work supplies a compact revision about photoelectrocatalytic generationof active chlorine and its radicals as intermediate and its application on organiccompounds abatement. © 2012 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. ItemCapítulo de livroAcute effects of musical auditory stimulation on heart rate dynamics(2017-01-01) do Amaral, Joice Anaize Tonon; Garner, David M.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia [UNESP]; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Oxford Brookes University; School of Medicine of ABC; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)In this chapter, we will describe recent studies that have investigated the acute influence of musical auditory stimulus on autonomic heart rate control. Searches were performed on Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using cross referencing between the keywords: “auditory stimulation,” “autonomic nervous system,” “music” and “heart rate variability.” We will present classical and recent experimental studies on humans and rats that investigated the acute effects of specific music on autonomic nervous system. For example, one of the selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Likewise, it was conveyed that musical therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that the release of dopamine in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs are involved in the cardiac autonomic regulation. This chapter proposes to explore how music can be used as a complementary therapy. ItemCapítulo de livroAcute oral erythematous candidosis(2015-01-01) Ito, Cristiane Yumi Koga [UNESP]; Sangalli, Jorgiana [UNESP]; Pereira, Daniel Freitas Alves [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)Acute erythematous candidiasis (EC) is cited as the most frequent clinical manifestation among AIDS patients, after pseudomembranous form. Among HIV-positive patients, it was reported as the most commonly observed oromucosal lesion. Higher prevalence of this condition was observed in patients with CD4/CD8 ratio <0.30 and CD4 levels ≤ 200 cells/ mm. Based on these evidences, the presence of EC has been suggested as a marker to diagnose the immune status of HIV-infected individuals. ItemCapítulo de livroAdapting to a changing climate: An operational space for local adaptation committee in Santos coastal area(2018-11-23) de Freitas, Débora M. [UNESP]; de Carvalho, Danielle Almeida [UNESP]; Hosokawa, Eduardo Kimoto; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Secretariat of Urban DevelopmentCoastal living countries are the frontline of climate change impacts presenting vulnerability to natural disasters and other climate hazards. Specially, in developing countries, there is greater vulnerability and environmental risks, related to populous irregular settlements common in coastal areas. The impacts of climate change will materialize over the next century, however by taking action now it is possible to adapted and avoid risks. At the local scale, the impacts are more significant so local government policies play an important role in preventing and managing risks. This chapter summarizes recent research findings in planning and management about climate change adaptation on coastal areas and presents a study case in the coastal city of Santos, Brazil. Based on decision makers and local community perceptions, this chapter analyses the creation of a local policy and points out the importance of a governance structure to manage climate change related decisions. Finding an adequate operational space for adapting to a changing climate in coastal complex regions such as Santos requires local and regional strategies. In this sense, local committees can act as enablers to ensure institutional support for climate adaptation as a priority issue in the political and planning agendas. ItemCapítulo de livroAdaptive improved flower pollination algorithm for global optimization(2020-01-01) Rodrigues, Douglas; de Rosa, Gustavo Henrique [UNESP]; Passos, Leandro Aparecido; Papa, João Paulo [UNESP]; São Carlos Federal University; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)In the last few years, meta-heuristic-driven optimization algorithms have been employed to solve several problems since they can provide simple and elegant solutions. In this work, we introduced an improved adaptive version of the Flower Pollination Algorithm, which can dynamically change its parameter setting throughout the convergence process, as well as it keeps track of the best solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is compared against with Bat Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization, as well as the naïve version of the Flower Pollination Algorithm. The experimental results were carried out in nine benchmark functions available in literature and demonstrated to outperform the other techniques with faster convergence rate. ItemCapítulo de livroAdsorption of Cadmium(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Calcium Molybdate(2022-01-01) De Cássia Pereira, Sandra; Das Graças Barbosa, Amanda; De Figueiredo, Alberthmeiry Teixeira; Morita Barrado, Cristiano; Nunes Alves, Vanessa; Longo, Elson [UNESP]; Federal University of Catalão; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The presence of toxic metals in aquatic environments poses serious problems for ecosystems and especially for human health. Numerous types of metal oxides have been used to remove these metals and other toxic organic compounds, using adsorption systems. In this work, CaMoO4 was synthesized via coprecipitation and processed for different periods of time using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal system. It was possible to synthesize CaMoO4 at room temperature without any heat treatment. In addition, small processing times in HTMW were able to produce CM with different morphologies. The effect of the reaction time on the morphology of the product and particle size was examined in SEM images. A plausible CaMO4 formation mechanism was proposed based on time and temperature parameters. The potential application of CaMO4 as an adsorbent in water treatment was also investigated and this material exhibited a favorable adsorption performance in the fast removal of cadmium(ii) ions from aqueous solution of 1 mg L-1 concentration. So, CM showed a promising potential for use in environmental remediation. ItemCapítulo de livroAdvanced organic nanocomposite coatings for effective corrosion protection(2020-01-01) Harb, Samarah Vargas [UNESP]; Trentin, Andressa [UNESP]; Uvida, Mayara Carla [UNESP]; Hammer, Peter [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Recent advances of nanotechnology allowed a huge step forward in the field of protective coatings based on polymeric composites. The incorporation of nanofillers into organic matrices has proven to enhance essential properties for anticorrosive application, including adhesion to metallic substrates, cross-linked nanostructure that blocks the entrance of corrosive species, mechanical strength to withstand deformation in aggressive environments, and thermal stability for high-temperature applications. Acrylates, epoxy, and polyurethanes coatings modified with inorganic oxides, carbon nanostructures, and clays have provided excellent corrosion protection for metallic surfaces with impedance modulus up to 100 GΩ cm2 and durability of months in corrosive environments. Although less exploited, other polymeric nanocomposites containing fluoropolymers, conducting polymers, polyesters, etc., are promising materials for efficient corrosion protection; therefore, further advances are expected in near future. This chapter gives an overview on the state of the art of nanocomposite high-efficiency protective coatings, giving special emphasis to the potential of organic–inorganic hybrid materials. ItemCapítulo de livroAdvances and prospects of environmental DNA in neotropical rainforests(2020-01-01) Zinger, Lucie; Donald, Julian; Brosse, Sébastien; Gonzalez, Mailyn Adriana; Iribar, Amaia; Leroy, Céline; Murienne, Jérôme; Orivel, Jérôme; Schimann, Heidy; Taberlet, Pierre; Lopes, Carla Martins [UNESP]; Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS); UMR 5174; Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt; IRD; UMR Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (EcoFoG); Université Grenoble Alpes; Tromsø Museum; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)The rainforests of the Neotropics shelter a vast diversity of plant, animal and microscopic species that provide critical ecosystem goods and services for both local and worldwide populations. These environments face a major crisis due to increased deforestation, pollution, and climate change, emphasizing the need for more effective conservation efforts. The adequate monitoring of these ecosystems has proven a complex and time consuming endeavour, which depends on ever dwindling taxonomic expertise. To date, many species remain undiscovered, let alone described, with otherwise limited information regarding known species population distributions and densities. Overcoming these knowledge shortfalls and practical limitations is becoming increasingly possible through techniques based on environmental DNA (eDNA), i.e., DNA that can be obtained from environmental samples (e.g. tissues, soil, sediment, water, etc.). When coupled with high-throughput sequencing, these techniques now enable realistic, cost-effective, and standardisable biodiversity assessments. This opens up enormous opportunities for advancing our understanding of complex and species-rich tropical communities, but also in facilitating large-scale biomonitoring programs in the neotropics. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to eDNA methods, and an overview of their current and potential uses in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of neotropical rainforests. We also discuss the limits and challenges of these methods for our understanding and monitoring of biodiversity, as well as future research and applied perspectives of these techniques in neotropical rainforests, and beyond.