In Vitro Regulation of CCL3 and CXCL12 by Bacterial By-products Is Dependent on Site of Origin of Human Oral Fibroblasts
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Introduction: Production of chemokines by tissue resident cells is one of the main mechanisms involved in the inflammatory infiltrate formation during inflammation. The specific ability of fibroblasts from different oral tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp from permanent and deciduous teeth in producing the chennokines CCL3 and CXCL12 under stimulation by bacterial products commonly found in endodontic infections was investigated. Methods: Cultures of fibroblasts from gingiva and periodontal ligament as well as from dental pulp from permanent and deciduous teeth were established by using an explant technique and stimulated with increasing concentrations of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (EcLPS) and Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid (EfLTA) for 1, 6, and 24 hours. Supernatants were tested for CCL3 and CXCL12 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In general, CCL3 production was induced by EcLPS in the 4 fibroblast subtypes and by EfLTA in fibroblasts from gingiva and periodontal ligament Constitutive CXCL12 synthesis decreased in all fibroblast subtypes especially under stimulation with EcLPS. Fibroblast from permanent deciduous teeth was the cell type presenting the most expressive reduction in CXCL12 release by both stimuli. On the basis of computational matching of CXCL12 mRNA with the microRNAs miR-141 and miR-200a, their expression was also investigated. Although detected in the fibroblasts, these molecules remained unaltered by bacterial by-product stimulation. Conclusions: EcLPS and EfLTA induced the production of CCL3 and unbalanced the synthesis of CXCL12 in a manner dependent on the specific tissue origin of fibroblasts.