Patient Education and Self-Care for the Management of Jaw Pain upon Awakening: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing the Effectiveness of Adding Pharmacologic Treatment with Cyclobenzaprine or Tizanidine
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Aims: To compare the effectiveness of adding cyclobenzaprine, tizanidine, or placebo to patient education and a self-care management program for patients with myofascial pain and specifically presenting with jaw pain upon awakening. Methods: Forty-five patients with a diagnosis of myofascial pain based on the guidelines of the American Academy of Orofacial Pain participated in this 3-week study. The subjects were randomly assigned into one of three groups: placebo group, TZA group (tizanidine 4 mg), or CYC group (cyclobenzaprine 10 mg). Patients were evaluated for changes in pain intensity, frequency, and duration by using the modified Severity Symptoms Index and changes in sleep quality with the use of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc or nonparametric statistical tests as appropriate. Results: All three groups had a reduction in pain symptoms and improvement of sleep quality based on a comparison of pretreatment and treatment scores. However, no significant differences among the groups were observed at the posttreatment evaluation. Conclusion: The use of tizanidine or cyclobenzaprine in addition to self-care management and patient education was not more effective than placebo for the management of patients with myofascial jaw pain upon awakening.