Endocrine disrupter action in ruminants: A study of the effects of Ipomoea carnea in adult male goats
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Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil and other tropical countries that often poisons livestock; its primary toxin is swainsonine. Some substances that interact with the endocrine system have been called endocrine disruptors (EDs). Considering swainsonine's mode of action, it is feasible to hypothesize that this compound could act as an ED. Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimic, is considered a classical ED in rodents. This study aimed to evaluate the possible ED actions of I. cameo and BPA in male goats. Seventeen adult male goats were divided into three homogeneous groups: control (C, n = 5); IC (n = 6, received 5.0 g/kg body weight of freshly harvested I. cornea per day), and BPA (n = 6, received 25.0 mg/kg body weight of BPA per day). The experimental period was 120 days. During the experiment, blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days for biochemical and hormonal evaluations. On the same days, semen samples were collected for andrological evaluation, and scrotal circumference and testicular consistency were determined. The males were castrated on day 121, and fragments of testicle and epididymis were collected for histopathological evaluation. A decrease in serum T3 and T4 was observed in the IC group as well as an increase in the number of sperm with morphological alterations. In the BPA group, reduced serum 14 and a decreased percentage of sperm with plasma membrane integrates were observed. A histopathological examination revealed the vacuolar degeneration of Sertoli cells and areas of laminar patterns of calcium deposits in the IC group and vacuolar degeneration in the rete testis in the BPA group. These results indicate that both I. cameo and BPA are potential EDs in goats. This study emphasized the susceptibility of livestock to ED actions. We also demonstrated the action of I. cameo acting as EDs in the endocrine and reproductive systems. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.