Ginkgo Biloba Extract in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review
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Although the exact cause of neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease is not known, evidence points to oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen species as the main events that occur in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the brain of parkinsonians. EGb761 is an extract of the leaves from the Ginkgo biloba tree that has been reported as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent. The objective of this work was to perform a systematic review of the studies that analysed the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Parkinson's disease or Parkinsonism. This research was conducted using the following databases: Medline, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Sigle, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane Library, and Embase. Initially, we selected 32 articles. After a more detailed analysis, only 10 articles remained. One of the hypotheses for the positive effect of EGb761 on Parkinson's disease is the reduction or inhibition of monoamine-oxidase activity. This enzyme metabolises dopamine, inducing the formation of free radicals, which in turn damage nigrostriatal neurons. Another hypothesis is that the neuroprotective effect of EGb761 against 6-hydroxydopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and MPP+ toxins. As there are few studies on the effect of EGb761 on humans, this review could contribute new data to further the discussion of this issue.