Real-time monitoring of ozone in air using substrate-integrated hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensors
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Ozone is a strong oxidant that is globally used as disinfection agent for many purposes including indoor building air cleaning, during food preparation procedures, and for control and killing of bacteria such as E. coli and S. aureus. However, it has been shown that effective ozone concentrations for controlling e. g., microbial growth need to be higher than 5 ppm, thereby exceeding the recommended U. S. EPA threshold more than 10 times. Consequently, real-time monitoring of such ozone concentration levels is essential. Here, we describe the first online gas sensing system combining a compact Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with a new generation of gas cells, a so-called substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG). The sensor was calibrated using anUVlamp for the controlled generation of ozone in synthetic air. Acalibration function was established in the concentration range of 0.3-5.4 mmolm23 enabling a calculated limit of detection (LOD) at 0.14 mmol m23 (3.5 ppm) of ozone. Given the adaptability of the developed IR sensing device toward a series of relevant air pollutants, and considering the potential for miniaturization e.g., in combination with tunable quantum cascade lasers in lieu of the FTIR spectrometer, a wide range of sensing and monitoring applications of beyond ozone analysis are anticipated.