Explicit and implicit knowledge of environment states induce adaptation in postural control
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of explicit and implicit knowledge about visual surrounding manipulation on postural responses. Twenty participants divided into two groups, implicit and explicit, remained in upright stance inside a moving room. In the fourth trial participants in the explicit group were informed about the movement of the room while participants in the implicit group performed the trial with the room moving at a larger amplitude and higher velocity. Results showed that postural responses to visual manipulation decreased after participants were told that the room was moving as well as after increasing amplitude and velocity of the room, indicating decreased coupling (down-weighting) of the visual influences. Moreover, this decrease was even greater for the implicit group compared to the explicit group. The results demonstrated that conscious knowledge about environmental state changes the coupling to visual information, suggesting a cognitive component related to sensory re-weighting. Re-weighting processes were also triggered without awareness of subjects and were even more pronounced compared to the first case. Adaptive re-weighting was shown when knowledge about environmental state was gathered explicitly and implicitly, but through different adaptive processes. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.