Energy and hydraulic efficiency in conventional water supply systems
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This paper presents the state-of-the-art approaches to energy (electricity) and hydraulic efficiency and conservation in conventional water supply systems, providing an overview of energy efficiency and conservation alternatives from the analysis of selected research literature. These alternatives vary from leakage management to state-of-the art real-time optimization techniques, and can be classified into three dimensions according to their natures: project and design dimension, operational dimension and physical dimension. The potential energy savings and the impact of these alternatives over the water supply systems' energy efficiency are highly variable. All the energy efficiency and conservation alternatives analyzed in this work may contribute with the promotion of sustainability of conventional water supply systems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.