Elevated micronucleus frequency in patients with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and periodontitis
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The over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause oxidative damage to a large number of molecules, including DNA, and has been associated with the pathogenesis of several disorders, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and periodontitis (PD). We hypothesise that the presence of these diseases could proportionally increase the DNA damage. The aim of this study was to assess the micronucleus frequency (MNF), as a biomarker for DNA damage, in individuals with type 2 DM, dyslipidemia and PD. One hundred and fifty patients were divided into five groups based upon diabetic, dyslipidemic and periodontal status (Group 1 - poor controlled DM with dyslipidemia and PD; Group 2 - well-controlled DM with dyslipidemia and PD; Group 3 - without DM with dyslipidemia and PD; Group 4 - without DM, without dyslipidemia and with PD; and Group 5 - without DM, dyslipidemia and PD). Blood analyses were carried out for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and lipid profile. Periodontal examinations were performed, and venous blood was collected and processed for micronucleus (MN) assay. The frequency of micronuclei was evaluated by cell culture cytokinesis-block MN assay. The general characteristics of each group were described by the mean and standard deviation and the data were submitted to the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Multiple Logistic Regression and Spearman tests. The Groups 1, 2 and 3 were similarly dyslipidemic presenting increased levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal tissue destruction and local inflammation were significantly more severe in diabetics, particularly in Group 1. Frequency of bi-nucleated cells with MN and MNF, as well as nucleoplasmic bridges, were significantly higher for poor controlled diabetics with dyslipidemia and PD in comparison with those systemically healthy, even after adjusting for age, and considering Bonferroni's correction. Elevated frequency of micronuclei was found in patients affected by type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and PD. This result suggests that these three pathologies occurring simultaneously promote an additional role to produce DNA impairment. In addition, the micronuclei assay was useful as a biomarker for DNA damage in individuals with chronic degenerative diseases.