Calvarial Autogenous Bone Graft for Maxillary Ridge and Sinus Reconstruction for Rehabilitation With Dental Implants
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Autogenous bone grafting is the gold-standard technique for bone augmentation procedures prior to implant placement. If the amount of available intraoral donor bone is insufficient, it is necessary to harvest bone graft from extraoral sites, such as calvaria. Although this technique is well established, only a few case reports show the histological analysis of the grafted bone at the moment of implant placement. This article reports the case of a 48-year-old female patient with a critical atrophic maxillary ridge reconstructed using autogenous calvarial bone graft prior to implant placement, with clinical and histological evaluation. Bone was collected under general anesthesia from the parietal bone. The outer cortical originated the bone blocks, and the medullar bone layer between was collected to be used in the sinus augmentation procedure, together with 5 of the bone blocks triturated. Six months after bone augmentation, 8 implants were placed in the grafted area and 2 biopsies were retrieved (anterior and the posterior regions), allowing the visualization of the bone-remodeling process in the grafted areas. The patient had a stable recovery. Our results showed that although necrotic bone could still be seen in the outer layer of the grafted area, the interface between this necrotic bone and the already remodeled bone was consistent with biocompatibility. Two-year radiographic evaluation showed success of the grafts and the implants in supporting an esthetic and functionally stable prosthesis. Summarizing, calvarial bone grafts are a viable alternative for the attainment of adequate bone volume prior to implant placement.