Paracoccidioides brasifiensis killing by IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and GM-CSF activated human neutrophils: role for oxygen metabolites
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Paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep mycosis endemic in Latin America, is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Phagocytic cells play a critical role against the fungus and several papers show the effects of activator and suppressive cytokines on macrophage and monocyte functions. However, the studies focusing on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) antifungal functions are scarcer. Thus, the objective of the present paper was to assess the capacity of human PMNs to kill virulent P brasiliensis strain in vitro, before and after priming with different cytokines. Moreover, the involvement of oxygen metabolites in this activity was evaluated. Nonactivated cells failed to exhibit antifungal activity. However, when these cells were IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha or GM-CSF activated, a significative fungicidal activity was detected. This process was significantly inhibited when P brasiliensis challenge occurred in presence of catalase (CAT - a scavenger of H2O2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD - a scavenger of superoxide anion). From these results it is concluded that cytokines activation is required for P brasiliensis killing by human PMNs, and that H2O2 and Superoxide anion participate as effectors molecules in this process.