Anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Alternanthera maritima extract and 2″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylvitexin in mice
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Alternanthera maritima are used in Brazilian popular medicine for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Species of Alternanthera have demonstrated biological activities in previous scientific studies. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of A. maritima (EEAM) and the isolated compound 2″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-vitexin inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia and parameters of inflammation in mice. The oral administration of EEAM significantly inhibited carrageenan (Cg)-induced paw edema and reduced leukocyte migration into the pleural cavity. 2″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylvitexin significantly inhibited paw edema and reduced both leukocyte migration and the leakage of protein into the pleural cavity. Both EEAM and 2″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylvitexin significantly prevented the Cg-induced hyperalgesia. Local administration of 2″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylvitexin significantly prevented the Cg- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced hyperalgesia. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that EEAM is an anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic agent, and the results suggested that 2″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylvitexin is responsible for the effects of EEAM and the mechanism involves the TNF pathway.