Mineral element and heavy metal poisoning in animals
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Mineral elements are essential to animal health, survival and production because they are part of physiological, structural, catalytic and regulatory organism functions. Therefore, they should be present in diet. However, these minerals when ingested in excessive doses due to errors in balancing mineral supplements and/or complete ration, intake of plants with high mineral concentration, resulting from addition of fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides in pasture or tillage where plants and/or grains will be used to feed animals, decomposition of urban and industrial wastes, leaks and accidental spills of pollutants may result in accumulation of toxic mineral elements in the environment poisoning the animals and may lead them to death. However, toxic doses, physiological changes during poisoning, symptoms and mineral concentration in tissues of poisoned animals to confirm diagnosis are not completely known. Thus, this study reviews mineral element doses that some authors considered toxic for animals intake, as its concentration in tissues of poisoned animals and its physiological effects, symptoms, diagnostic procedures and treatment for poisoning by cadmium, lead, copper, chromium, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc.