Approach to the metabolic implications of peritoneal dialysis inacute kidney injury
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During the 1970s and 1980s, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was widely accepted as the standard treatment for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, advances in the techniques of extracorporeal blood purification gradually reduced its use, making PD an underused modality in this context. Although PD for AKI is an underutilized modality worldwide, it is frequently used in developing countries because of its lower cost and minimal infrastructure requirements. Recent studies have shown that PD administered continuously through a flexible catheter and cycler is an effective treatment in AKI because it ensures adequate fluid status and metabolic control. However, the use of PD in AKI has several limitations, such as the need for an intact peritoneal cavity and, in emergency situations such as severe fluid overload and severe hyperkalemia, an efficacy that is lower than that with extracorporeal blood purification techniques. Metabolic, infectious, and mechanical disorders related to PD are also limitations. Among the metabolic complications of PD are hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, protein loss into the dialysate, and hypercatabolism. Hyperglycemia is caused by the use of dialysate containing high concentrations of glucose. Hypernatremia is a result of short dialysate dwell times during the rapid exchanges of high-volume PD. Protein loss into the dialysate can reach 48 g daily, worsening the nutrition status of patients already depleted by AKI. Severe hypercatabolism caused by PD remains controversial and occurs because PD methods cannot provide an adequate dialysis dose for AKI patients. Few studies have assessed the metabolic implications of PD in AKI patients. Evaluation of these implications is relatively simple, imposes no additional costs, and can provide information about the severity of the disease. Evaluation could also guide the selection of therapeutic, dialytic, and nutrition measures, preventing metabolic complications. The present manuscript describes the metabolic implications of PD and reviews the literature on how to prevent metabolic complications.