Effect of Ultrasonic Excitation on the Porosity of Glass Ionomer Cement: A Scanning Electron Microscope Evaluation
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Background: Ultrasonic excitation (US) was applied to glass ionomer cement (GIC) during early set time to increase the advantageous properties of this material. Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the inner porosity of GIC after US. Study design: A total of 16 specimens, for each material, were prepared from high-viscosity GIC Fuji IX GP, Ketac Molar, and Ketac Molar Easymix. Half of these specimens (n = 8) received 30 s of US during the initial cement setting. After completion of the material setting, specimens were fractured and observed by scanning electronic microscopy to quantitatively assay porosity inside the material using Image J software. Results: Statistical data analysis revealed that US reduced the porosity for all tested materials (P <= 0.05). The following reductions (expressed in percentages) were achieved: Fuji IX-from 3.9% to 2.8%; Ketac Molar Easy Mix-from 4.4% to 2.6%, and Ketac Molar-from 2.4% to 1.6%. Conclusion: Under the tested conditions, US was an effective method for porosity reduction inside the material. Microsc. Res. Tech. 74:54-57, 2011. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.