Biomechanical and histologic evaluation of non-washed resorbable blasting media and alumina-blasted/acid-etched surfaces
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Objectives: To compare the biomechanical fixation and histomorphometric parameters between two implant surfaces: non-washed resorbable blasting media (NWRBM) and alumina-blasted/acid-etched (AB/AE), in a dog model. Material and methods: The surface topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, optical interferometry and chemistry by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Six beagle dogs of similar to 1.5 years of age were utilized and each animal received one implant of each surface per limb (distal radii sites). After a healing period of 3 weeks, the animals were euthanized and half of the implants were biomechanically tested (removal torque) and the other half was referred to nondecalcified histology processing. Histomorphometric analysis considered bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Following data normality check with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, statistical analysis was performed by paired t-tests at 95% level of significance. Results: Surface roughness parameters Sa (average surface roughness) and Sq (mean root square of the surface) were significantly lower for the NWRBM compared with AB/ AE. The XPS spectra revealed the presence of Ca and P in the NWRBM. While no significant differences were observed for both BIC and BAFO parameters (P>0.35 and P>0.11, respectively), a significantly higher level of torque was observed for the NWRBM group (P = 0.01). Bone morphology was similar between groups, which presented newly formed woven bone in proximity with the implant surfaces. Conclusion: A significant increase in early biomechanical fixation was observed for implants presenting the NWRBM surface.