Relativistic Bose-Einstein condensation with disorder
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We investigate the thermodynamics of a self-interacting relativistic charged scalar field in the presence of weak disorder. We consider quenched disorder which couples linearly to the mass of the scalar field. After performing noise averages over the free energy of the system, we find that disorder increases the mean-field critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation at finite density in the ultrarelativistic limit. In turn, preliminary non-relativistic calculations indicate that the presence of randomness affects the Bose gas in the opposite way in such a limit, i.e. disorder reduces the mean-field condensation temperature. The effect of disorder on the temperature dependence of the chemical potential for a fixed charge density is investigated. Significant differences from the mean-field temperature dependence of the chemical potential are observed as the strength of the noise intensity increases. Finally, the temperature dependence of the chemical potential with fixed total charge and entropy is investigated. It is found that there is no Bose-Einstein condensation for a fixed charge to entropy ratio in the presence of weak disorder. The possible relevance of the findings in the present paper in different areas is discussed.