Poultry Egg Incubation: Integrating and Optimizing Production Efficiency
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Due to its central position in the production chain, in-ovo development is influenced by pre-incubation factors that affect the quality of embryonated eggs and incubation conditions themselves, and both may influence egg hatchability and chick quality, as well as bird survival, growth performance, and phenotype in the field. The evolution of the incubation process over the years is characterized by significant scientific and technological development. Presently, the main current focuses of research are the manipulation of thermal incubation conditions, eggshell temperature, and the integrated effects of factors that influence incubation. In this context, one of the questions that needs to be asked is how effective are the current physical conditions of incubation to promote greater hatchability and better quality chicks, and higher survival and better performance in the field under adverse conditions or not. What are the new and future prospects for incubation? The purpose of this paper was to review the role of the physical agents of incubation, such as temperature, relative humidity, O-2 and CO2 concentration, and egg turning and position from an integrated perspective, considering egg incubation as the transitional link between egg and poultry production.
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