Short-term induction of thrombocytopenia delays periodontal healing in rats with periodontal disease: participation of endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor
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Background and Objective:Platelets contain factors, including VEGF and endostatin, that can modulate the healing process. We evaluated the effects of severe thrombocytopenia on periodontal healing in rats and determined the contribution of VEGF and endostatin to the healing process.Material and Methods:Rats were distributed into three test groups and two control groups. Cotton ligatures were placed at the gingival margin level of the lower first molar in the test groups. Sham-operated rats and rats in one of the periodontitis groups were killed 15 days later. Rats in the remaining two periodontitis groups had the ligatures removed in order to study the spontaneous recovery from the periodontal disease 15 days later, and these rats were treated with rabbit antiplatelet serum, in order to induce thrombocytopenia, or normal rabbit serum. An additional group without ligatures received antiplatet serum in the same period.Results:After ligature removal, rats treated with normal rabbit serum showed reduced myeloperoxidase activity, decreased alveolar bone loss and increased numbers of blood vessels. Thrombocytopenia caused a delay in alveolar bone regeneration, a decrease in the number of vessels and a modest decrease in myeloperoxidase activity. In the rats with periodontitis, serum endostatin concentrations were slightly decreased and serum VEGF remained unchanged compared with sham-operated animals. After ligature removal, a significant VEGF increase and endostatin decrease were observed in the rats treated with normal rabbit serum. Thrombocytopenia led to a dramatic fall in both VEGF and endostatin concentrations.Conclusion:Thrombocytopenia leads to a delay of periodontal healing in the situation of experimental periodontitis, which might be mediated in part by a decrease in the serum concentration of VEGF and endostatin derived from the platelets. However, other factors derived from the platelets may also have contributed to a delay of periodontal healing in the rats with thrombocytopenia.