Moxonidine into the lateral parabrachial nucleus reduces renal and hormonal responses to cell dehydration
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The deactivation of the inhibitory mechanisms with injections of moxonidine (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor/imidazoline receptor agonist) into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) increases hypertonic NaCl intake by intra- or extracellular dehydrated rats. In the present study, we investigated the changes in the urinary sodium and volume, sodium balance, and plasma vasopressin and oxytocin in rats treated with intragastric (i.g.) 2 M NaCl load (2 ml/rat) combined with injections of moxonidine into the LPBN. Male Holtzman rats (n=5-12/group) with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally into LPBN were used. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (0.5 nmol/0.2 mu l) into the LPBN decreased i.g. 2 M NaCIinduced diuresis (4.6 +/- 0.7 vs. vehicle: 7.4 +/- 0.6 ml/120 min) and natriuresis (1.65 +/- 0.29 vs. vehicle: 2.53 +/- 0.17 mEq/120 min), whereas the previous injection of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist RX 821002 (10 nmol/0.2 mu l) into the LPBN abolished the effects of moxonidline. Moxonidine injected into the LPBN reduced i.g. 2 M NaCl-induced increase in plasma oxytocin and vasopressin (14.6 +/- 2.8 and 2.2 +/- 0.3 vs. vehicle: 25.7 +/- 7 and 4.3 +/- 0.7 pg/ml, respectively). Moxonidine injected into the LPBN combined with i.g. 2 M NaCl also increased 0.3 M NaCl intake (7.5 +/- 1.7 vs. vehicle: 0.5 +/- 0.2 mEq/2 h) and produced positive sodium balance (2.3 +/- 1.4 vs. vehicle: -1.2 +/- 0.4 mEq/2 h) in rats that had access to water and NaCl. The present results show that LPBN alpha(2)-adrenoceptor activation reduces renal and hormonal responses to intracellular dehydration and increases sodium and water intake, which facilitates sodium retention and body fluid volume expansion. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.