Comparison between inflammation-related markers in peri-implant crevicular fluid and clinical parameters during osseointegration in edentulous jaws
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The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of interleukin mechanisms during osseointegration to enhance the monitoring of implant failure and success. Clinical parameters, implant stability, and cytokine levels in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) during early bone healing after implant placement were investigated. Sixty narrow implants were placed in mandible anterior region of 30 edentulous patients (67.23 +/- 7.66 years). Bone type, insertion torque, and primary stability were registered during surgery. Clinical measurements of peri-implant health and the secondary implant stability quotient (ISQ) were recorded. Samples from the PICF were collected 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery and analyzed for IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha levels using ELISAs. The gingival index increased significantly during the first week (p = 0.05), while the plaque index increased significantly between 4 to 8 and 8 to 12 weeks (p < 0.05). The probing depth and the ISQ also reduced significantly (p < 0.05) over time. The TNF-alpha release increased significantly after the 2nd week for non-atrophic patients and 4th week for atrophic patients (p < 0.05). The IL-1 beta concentrations showed a short-lived peak after 1st week (p = 0.003), specially in atrophic patients and sites with bone type I (p = 0.034; p = 0.007). The IL-6 concentrations peaked during the 1st and 2nd weeks (p < 0.05; p = 0.005) in atrophic patients and in bone type II (p = 0.023; p = 0.003). The IL-10 concentrations increased gradually over time, showing the highest concentrations at the 12th week (p < 0.005). A total of 12 implants failed at different periods. While the clinical measurements presented differences between the evaluation periods, these were not indicative of early dental implant failure or peri-implant diseases. Smoking, bone atrophy, and bone type can greatly influence the cytokines concentrations during the healing time.