Acoustic and perceptual analyses of Brazilian male actors' and nonactors' voices: Long-term average spectrum and the Actor's Formant
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This study investigates the possible differences between actors' and nonactors' vocal projection strategies using acoustic and perceptual analyses. A total of 11 male actors and 10 male nonactors volunteered as subjects, reading an extended text sample in habitual, moderate, and loud levels. The samples were analyzed for sound pressure level (SPL), alpha ratio (difference between the average SPL of the 1-5 kHz region and the average SPL of the 50 Hz-1 kHz region), fundamental frequency (F0), and long-term average spectrum (LTAS). Through LTAS, the mean frequency of the first formant (171) range, the mean frequency of the actor's formant, the level differences between the F1 frequency region and the F0 region (L1-L0), and the level differences between the strongest peak at 0-1 kHz and that at 3-4 kHz were measured. Eight voice specialists evaluated perceptually the degree of projection, loudness, and tension in the samples. The actors had a greater alpha ratio, stronger level of the actor's formant range, and a higher degree of perceived projection and loudness in all loudness levels. SPL, however, did not differ significantly between the actors and nonactors, and no differences were found in the mean formant frequencies ranges. The alpha ratio and the relative level of the actor's formant range seemed to be related to the degree of perceived loudness. From the physiological point of view, a more favorable glottal setting' providing a higher glottal closing speed, may be characteristic of these actors' projected voices. So, the projected voices, in this group of actors, were more related to the glottic source than to the resonance of the vocal tract.