Echocardiographic detection of congestive heart failure in postinfarction rats
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Martinez PF, Okoshi K, Zornoff LA, Oliveira Jr SA, Campos DH, Lima AR, Damatto RL, Cezar MD, Bonomo C, Guizoni DM, Padovani CR, Cicogna AC, Okoshi MP. Echocardiographic detection of congestive heart failure in postinfarction rats. J Appl Physiol 111: 543-551, 2011. First published May 26, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01154.2010.-In studies of congestive heart failure (CHF) treatment, it is essential to select animals with a similar degree of cardiac dysfunction. However, this is difficult to establish without hemodynamic evaluation in rat postinfarction-induced CHF. This study aimed to diagnose CHF in long-term follow-up postinfarction rats using only echocardiographic criteria through a J-tree cluster analysis and Fisher's linear discriminant function. Two sets of sham and infarcted rats were studied. The first was used to perform cluster analysis and the second to prospectively validate the results. Six months after inducing myocardial infarction (MI), rats were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography. Infarct size was measured by histological analysis. Six echocardiographic variables were used in the cluster analysis: left ventricular (LV) systolic dimension, LV diastolic dimension-to-body weight ratio, left atrial diameter-to-body weight ratio, LV posterior wall shortening velocity, E wave, and isovolumetric relaxation time. Cluster analysis joined the rats into one sham and two MI groups. One MI cluster had more severe anatomical and echocardiographic changes and was called MI with heart failure (MI/HF+, n = 24, infarct size: 42.7 +/- 5.8%). The other had less severe changes and was called MI without heart failure (MI/HF-, n = 11, infarct size: 32.3 +/- 9.9%; P < 0.001 vs. MI/HF+). Three rats with small infarct size (21.6 +/- 2.2%) presenting mild cardiac alterations were misallocated in the sham group. Fisher's linear discriminant function was built using these groups and used to prospectively classify additional groups of sham-operated (n = 20) and infarcted rats (n = 57) using the same echocardiographic parameters. The discriminant function therefore detected CHF with 100% specificity and 80% sensitivity considering allocation in MI/HF+ and sham group, and 100% specificity and 58.8% sensitivity considering MI/HF+ and MI/HF- groups, taking into account pathological criteria of CHF diagnosis. Echocardiographic analysis can be used to accurately predict congestive heart failure in postinfarction rats.
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