Interferência do volume de calda, crescimento dos frutos e precipitação pluviométrica sobre os depósitos da pulverização no período de controle da mancha preta dos citros
Alternative titleInterference of spray volume, fruit growth and rainfall on spray deposits in citrus black spot control periods
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Citrus black spot (CBS) caused by Guignardia citricarpa is one of the most serious Brazilian citrus diseases. This study aims to assess the interference of three application volumes in spray deposition citrus fruit, as well as fruit growth and rainfall effects on spray deposit reduction during the CBS control period. The experiment was carried out in a commercial citrus orchard, with sixteen-year-old trees of the Valencia variety, in Mogi Guaçu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The spray volumes were: 3.5 (1333L ha-1), 4.5 (1714L ha-1) and 8.5 (3238L ha-1) litres per tree, sprayed by an airblast sprayer using fungicides at recommended periods for disease control. The spray deposition quantification and residue was done by spectrophotometry using a copper oxychloride tracer. Samples were collected in three height zones of the tree (top, middle and bottom) and placed between trees on line plantation. Spray depositions were significantly smaller in the first application as a consequence of reduced fruit size. The spray losses on average for each day of rainfall ranged from 4.0 to 5.7%. There was no significant difference between application volumes regarding spray deposition on citrus fruit,which makes possible the reduction of application volumes, however, it is necessary to improve spraying techniques for the top zone of the citrus tree.