Influencia de la composición corporal regional y total en el rendimiento de nado y índices aerobios
Influência da composição corporal regional e total sobre o desempenho de nado e índices aeróbios
Alternative titleInfluence of regional and whole-body composition on swimming performance and aerobic indices
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Introduction: There have been few studies analyzing the regional body contribution of swimmers for aerobic and anaerobic profiles and swimming performance. Objective: To verify the influence of regional and whole-body composition on aerobic and anaerobic fitness indices in free and tethered swimming, as well as short- and mediumterm performance. Methods: Eleven swimmers (18.0 ± 4.0 years old) were submitted to: (1) an incremental test in tethered swimming, with breath-by-breath gas exchange sampling (K4b2 associated with the new-AquaTrainer®), and (2) timeout while performing the 200, 400 and 800 meter freestyle. Linear regression analysis between distance and time (d-tLim) was performed using the least squares method. Pearson’s coefficient (r) was used to test the correlations between regional and whole-body composition and aerobic and anaerobic fitness indices in freestyle and tethered swimming. Results: Mean values for fat free mass (FFM) were: 61.7±7.4 kg; 7.5±1.1 kg; 28.3±3.7 kg; 22.1±2.5 kg, respectively, for the whole-body, upper-limbs (UL), trunk (T) and lower-limbs (LL). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 52.1±5.3 ml×kg−1×min-1, and respective load (iVO2max) was 93.9 ± 12.2 N. The timeout in 200 (132.2±9.7 s), 400 (296.8±17.2 s) and 800 meters (619.5±26.9 s) provided critical velocity (CV = 1.23±0.06 m×s-1) and anaerobic swimming capacity (ASC = 35.8±15.1 m). Correlations were observed for iVO2max, ASC and v200m with FFM for UL (r = 0.64; 0.67 and 0.76), but FFM for T, LL and whole body were related only with v200m (r = 0.75; 0.69 and 0.75) and ASC (r = 0.71; 0.69 and 0.75). Conclusion: Regional and whole-body FFM influenced short-term performance and anaerobic reserves; FFM for UL was also related to iVO2max, and was therefore associated with improved swimming performance.