Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Ethanolic Extract and Phenolic Fraction of Jatropha aethiopica (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Their Hypoglycemic Potential
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Although Jatropha aethiopica, popularly known in Cuba as mata diabetes, is used in salads and as a dietary supplement, its chemical composition and antidiabetic properties yet remains unclear. In this work, we evaluate the qualitative and quantitative composition of ethanolic extract (EE) and phenolic fraction (PF) of Jatropha aethiopica leaves and their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity. Chemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract yielded nine compounds, which included protocatechuic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranolsyl-(1 → 6)]-β-d-galactopyranoside (4), a new kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranolsyl-(1 → 6)]-β-d-galactopyranoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranolsyl-(1 → 6)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), rutin (7), kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), and quercetin (9). The compounds (1, 4-7) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) in both the ethanolic extract (62.65 ± 0.15 mg/g) and phenolic fraction (61.72 ± 0.23 mg/g). The results obtained show that both ethanolic extract and phenolic fraction contributed toward the improvement of glucose tolerance, which in turn led to a decline in the glucose levels. Remarkably, the ethanolic extract presented a relatively higher promising effect compared to metformin.
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