Optimum sowing date and genotype testing for upland rice production in Brazil
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A better understanding of widespread agricultural practices adopted in the region of Ribeira Valley, São Paulo, Brazil for upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) production is needed. The objectives of this study were to determine the optimum sowing date and highest yielding genotypes for rice production. Treatments included four upland rice genotypes (ANA 5011, AN-Cambará, Moti-Amarelo, and Moti-Branco) and four sowing dates (October, November, December, and January) in 2011 and 2012. The results of the study showed that genotype ANA 5011 had the earliest maturity, while the Moti genotypes had the latest maturity in all sowing dates. The Moti genotypes were found to have greater plant height and 1,000-grain weight than the other two genotypes. In contrast, the Moti genotypes had fewer panicles m-2, fewer total filled and total numbers of spikelets panicle-1, and lower final yield. The genotype AN-Cambará had the highest number of tillers, filled and total number of spikelets panicle-1, panicle m-2, and the highest yield. Sowing in either November or December was found to be the most suitable dates for rice cultivation for all genotypes. In conclusion, the AN-Cambará genotype was found to have the highest yield potential for the region among all genotypes studied.