The effect of temperature on the initial development of Brycon amazonicus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 as tool for micromanipulation of embryos
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Primordial germ cell (PGC) transplant is a promising tool in aquaculture; however, successful use of this technique requires in depth knowledge of the early stages of embryo and larval development. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of different temperatures (22, 26, and 30°C) on the early development of B. amazonicus. The newly fertilized eggs were distributed into tanks with controlled temperature and oxygenation. Samples were collected at pre-established times and analysed under light and fluorescence microscopy. Temperature influenced the speed and duration of each stage of early development, including hatching time. The highest pronuclei fusion rate was observed 8 min post-fertilization (mpf) at 22 and 26°C, and 6 mpf at 30°C. The duration of the 512–1000 blastomeres phase during in the blastocyst stage was 1 h 30 min at 22°C, and 25 min at 26 and 30°C. Hatching occurred at 24 h 30 mpf at 22°C, 16 h post-fertilization (hpf) at 26°C, and 11 h 30 mpf at 30°C. The rate of morphologically normal larvae was 88.34% at 22°C, 90.49% at 26°C, and 73% at 30°C. Malformations of the head, yolk sac, heart, and tail were observed in all temperatures. Nevertheless, B. amazonicus embryos were able to develop satisfactory in all three temperatures tested. These results enable embryo manipulation at different temperatures to optimize the micromanipulation time of embryos and larvae for biotechnological studies.