Physiological quality of the seeds of common bean cultivars grown in different phosphorus levels and growing seasons
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The use of appropriate management practices, such as sowing and fertilizing, associated with the use of promising genotypes are strategies for obtaining bean seeds of high quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of cultivars of common bean seeds produced in two growing seasons under different phosphorus levels. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design of 2 × 2 × 6, with four replications. We evaluated two common bean cultivars ('IAC Carioca Precoce' and 'IAC Carioca Tybatã'), two planting seasons of common beans (rainy season and dry season), and six rates of phosphorus fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 kg ha-1 of P2O5) applied to the planting rows, using triple super phosphate as the source of P. Seed quality was evaluated by testing the water content, germination, first account of the germination test, accelerated aging test and the water content after the test, electrical conductivity, and seedling emergence in the field. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means of cultivars and growing seasons were compared using Tukey's test at 5% probability. Regression analysis was performed for phosphorus levels. Seeds of 'IAC Carioca Precoce' produced during the rainy season showed higher germination. In the dry season, the highest seedling emergence in the field was recorded for 'IAC Carioca Tybatã'. Common bean cultivation provided seeds with higher germination and vigor in the dry season than in the rainy season. The accelerated aging test showed that when phosphorus was applied in the planting rows, the vigor of common bean seed was enhanced, with a better response to higher doses when cultivated in the dry season.