Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome Components on Lipodystrophy Different Subtypes Associated with HIV
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HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed. They performed ambulatorial follow-up and used ART regularly. The main findings were greater lipid profile alterations among women, while no metabolic profile differences were found between the HALS subtypes. The lipohypertrophy group showed major alterations, with higher values for total body fat percent, visceral fat area (VFA), body mass index (BMI), and abdominal and neck circumferences when compared to the other groups. Lean body mass was superior only compared to the mixed lipodystrophy group, and fat mass only compared to the lipoatrophy group. BMI showed strong correlation with the VFA. In conclusion, despite anthropometric alterations related to HALS these individuals present, those are not accompanied with metabolic alterations. Strategies, as behavioral changes and disorders prevention, are important to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease development.