Bioavailability of Metals at a Southeastern Brazilian Coastal Area of High Environmental Concern Under Anthropic Influence: Evaluation Using Transplanted Bivalves (Nodipecten nodosus) and the DGT Technique
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Metals are commonly determined in aquatic organisms, primarily using bivalves to provide important data on their bioavailability. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs) has also been employed to assess the concentration of metals in freshwater and marine environments, determining their lability. The present work evaluated and compared the labile and bioavailable concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb in seawater from Ilha Grande Bay, RJ, using DGT and transplanted bivalves (Nodipecten nodosus), respectively. The scallops and DGTs were immersed in water at three sampling locations within the bay from July to September 2012 (winter campaign) and from December 2012 to February 2013 (summer campaign). The metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). DGT technique was successfully used to determine the concentrations of metals in waters, except for Pb when short deployment times were used. All metals were determined using transplanted bivalves (N. nodosus), but pre-exposure to Cd was evident, which made the interpretation of the data for this analyte difficult. The data on metal lability in Ilha Grande Bay waters obtained from the DGT technique were correlated with the metal bioavailability determined in the soft tissues of the transplanted N. nodosus for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb. This is the first evaluation of this type for this area of high environmental concern. Both techniques revealed that Náutico was the location with the highest concentration of metals in the study area.
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