Biofertilizer application in soil
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A strong demand for healthy food free of chemical residues from pesticides used in pest control, diseases and invasive plants exists in our modern society. In addition, there is a permanent concern about environmental contamination by such chemical residues. Hence proper handling of chemical substances have been prioritized. It is also preferable the usage of natural substances and/or molecules of higher specificity and lower environmental impact. An alternative and promising mechanism for increasing crop productivity is the use of biotechnological tools, especially the biological processes that occur in soil system/plant carried out by microorganisms, establishing the basis on which the agroecological system is based. In this context, biofertilizers arise as a sustainable alternative due to the lowest environmental impact and the cost-effective production values. The biofertilizer is a liquid organic fertilizer and is obtained from the organic compound dissolved in water, followed by fermentation or digestion by microorganisms. It is a rich organic compound mixture of nutrients and microbial biomass able to supply the soil biota with substrates, thus assisting in the metabolic activity of the local community. The process of obtaining the biofertilizer results in two phases: a solid that can be used as organic fertilizer in soil, and the liquid phase used as foliar fertilizer and pestcontrol. These organic fertilizers are bioactive compounds, terminal residues of fermentation of organic compounds, containing living or latent microorganism cells. Biofertilizers are produced in biodigesters by aerobic and/or anaerobic fermentation of organic matter and, therefore, its constitution is rich in enzymes, antibiotics, vitamins, toxins, phenols, esters and organic acids. Thus, due to the high concentration and diversity of nutrients in its composition, biofertilizers become an important tool in accelerating xenobiotic degradation of microbial processes in soil.
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