An eco-friendly and low-cost method for the quantification of Cefazolin sodium in powder for injectable solution using thin-layer chromatography assisted by digital images
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Cefazolin sodium (CFZ) is a semi-synthetic first-generation cephalosporin used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Although it is a drug used worldwide, there are only a few green analytical methods described in the literature for its quantification. This work proposes an eco-friendly, low-cost, and rapid analytical method to analyze CFZ in lyophilized powder for injectable solution based on digital images, using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). For the TLC method, the mobile phase was comprised of ethanol and water, and the spots revelation was performed using iodine vapors. The TLC spots were analyzed through digital images, obtained by flatbed scanner, and evaluated using the free software The Gimp (GNU Image Manipulation Program), by quantification of pixels in pictures. This method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and presented adequate linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. It also showed its selectivity and stability-indicating capability (under acid, alkaline, aqueous, oxidative, and photolytic stress conditions). This is an innovative, easy, and low-cost method that can be used for the analysis of cefazolin sodium in lyophilized powder. Considering that this method does not use toxic organic solvents for the environment and operators, it contributes to the development of green chemistry.