Processing traits and digestibility of extruded dog foods with soy protein concentrate
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Soya bean protein concentrate (SPC) with two particle sizes were evaluated on extrusion parameters, kibble formation, digestibility and palatability of dog foods. Eight diets were extruded: PBM—control diet based on poultry by-product meal (PBM); GM—a diet in which corn gluten meal (GM) replaced 45% of the diet protein; cSPC15%, cSPC30% and cSPC45%—diets in which SPC of coarse particle size (600 μm) replaced 15%, 30% and 45% of the diet protein; and sSPC15%, sSPC30% and sSPC45%—diets in which SPC of small particle size (200 μm) replaced 15%, 30% and 45% of the diet protein. The digestibility of nutrients was evaluated for the PBM, GM, cSPC45% and sSPC45% diets, using six dogs per food. The PBM, GM and cSPC45% diets were compared for palatability. Data were submitted for analysis of variance, and the means were compared by polynomial contrasts or Tukey's test (p <.05). The cSPC increased the specific mechanical energy (SME) application, extrusion temperature and pressure linearly, resulting in lower kibble density and higher expansion and starch gelatinization (SG) (p <.01). When comparing the PBM, GM, cSPC45% and sSPC45% diets, higher SME, extrusion temperature and pressure, SG and kibble expansion were verified for the cSPC45% diet (p <.05). The DM, fat and crude protein digestibility were similar among diets. Faecal pH, ammonia and lactate did not differ, demonstrating that the removal of oligosaccharides and soluble non-starch polysaccharides of SPC produces an ingredient with mostly non-fermentable fibre. Dogs preferred the PBM to the GM diet (p <.05), but consumed the PBM and cSPC45% foods equally. In conclusion, SPC exhibited good extrusion functionality, favouring kibble expansion and SG, with high digestibility, similar to that of PBM. The removal of soluble compounds from soya beans resulted in an ingredient with low fermentable fibre content, which did not alter faecal formation or characteristics.
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