Extensive antigenic and genetic variation among foot-and-mouth disease type A viruses isolated from the 1994 and 1995 foci in São Paulo, Brazil
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Nine foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A isolates recovered from the field FMD foci in São Paulo State, Brazil, during 1994 and 1995 (a period preceding the last reported focus of FMD in 1996 in this state) were compared among themselves and with the reference vaccine strain A(24)Cruzeiro. The techniques used were sandwich ELISA, virus neutralization (VN), polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the structural polypeptides and direct sequencing of the VP1-coding region (1D gene). Results of VN were recorded as serological relationships R and those from ELISA were expressed as percentage of the homologous reaction r. ELISA and VN gave comparable results (correlation coefficient, 0.936) allowing assignment of these field viruses to four groups which were distinct from the A(24)Cruzeiro strain. PAGE and ID nucleotide sequencing were also able to distinguish between these viruses. The high level:of genetic and antigenic variation found when comparing the A(24)Cruzeiro vaccine strain and type A strains recovered, from the last identified foci of FMD came from a formerly endemic area where vaccination with polyvalent vaccines (O(1)Campos, A(24)Cruzciro and C(3)Indaial) had been extensively applied. The similarity between the results of the serological and genetic analyses suggest that the antigenic differences found are mainly located in the 1D protein. (C) 2002 Elsevier B.V. B.V. All rights reserved.