Treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis using platelet-rich plasma: microtomographic, microscopic, and immunohistochemical analyses
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Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on tooth extraction sites in rats treated with bisphosphonates. Thirty Albinus Wistar male rats were administered 0.035 mg/kg zoledronic acid intravenously for 8 weeks, divided into four administrations with a 2-week interval between each application, after which their upper right central incisors were extracted to induce the development of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). The samples were divided into the following two groups: Group 1 (G1) underwent marginal resection of BRONJ followed by the use of PRP, while Group 2 (G2) underwent resection of BRONJ but without the use of PRP. The treatment groups were evaluated after 14, 28, and 42 days. Clinical, microtomographic, microscopic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluations were performed. Microtomography results revealed no significant difference between the groups (p <0.05) in any time period. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased bone formation over time for both groups (p < 0.001). G1 demonstrated a greater amount of new bone formation than G2 at 28 and 42 days (p < 0.001), with G1 presenting greater vascularization and a slightly higher VEGF expression. For both groups, RANKL/OPG expression levels were sufficient as a parameter for indicating the rate of bone remodeling in a previously treated area of osteonecrosis groups. Taken together, our findings indicated that the use of PRP improves the resolution process of BRONJ.