NUTRIENT AND ORGANIC CARBON RELEASE IN SOILS CONTAINING WASHED AND NOT WASHED HYDROCHAR COMPARED TO ANTHROPOGENIC SOILS
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Hydrochar washed (1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 %) and not washed (10.0%) produced by hydrothermal carbonization using vinasse and sugarcane bagasse was applied in sand, ultisol and oxisol columns, and the release of NO3-, Orthophosphate, SO42-, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), H+ were evaluated for 30 days. These results were compared with the release of these parameters from experiments conducted with anthropogenic soils. The results demonstrated that higher amounts of nutrients were released for the experiments conducted with hydrochar not washed. With higher rates of hydrochar washed, higher the amount of nutrients released. TOC and SO42- were released throughout the experiment, which is beneficial from the agricultural point of view. Low values of orthophosphate and nitrate release in the leachates were observed for ultisol and oxisol due to the clay and iron and manganese oxides contents. Principal components analysis confirmed the observations and demonstrated that SO42- and TOC preferentially influence the oxisol, being that nitrate and pH influenced the columns containing Terra Mulata and sand. The results allow to conclude that it is possible to adjust the application rate of hydrochar in soils with lower fertility in order to increase it as observed for anthropogenic soils.