Effects of linear versus nonperiodized resistance training on isometric force and skeletal muscle mass adaptations in sarcopenic older adults
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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear periodization (LP) versus nonperiodized (NP) resistance training on upper-body isometric force and skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in sarcopenic older adults. Twenty sarcopenic older adults were randomly assigned into the LP and NP groups and performed 16 weeks of resistance training. The SMM was measured by octopolar bioelectrical impedance. The isometric force for handgrip and trunk were assessed by dynamometer. Evaluations were performed at baseline, after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of resistance training. For total weight lifted, there was a main effect for time (F= 126.986, P < 0.001), statistically significant difference between condition (F=13.867, P=0.001) and interaction (F=8.778, P < 0.001), whereby total weight lifted was greater for NP after 4 months of training. Isometric force for handgrip and trunk increased across time (P < 0.001) but no significant differences between groups or interaction were observed (P > 0.05). The SMM increased across time (P < 0.05), however no significant difference between groups or interaction were observed (P > 0.05). There were strong and significant correlations between handgrip maximum force and SMM (LP: rho= 0.79, P= 0.004 vs. NP: rho =-0.43, P=0.244) and handgrip mean force and SMM (LP: rho= 0.68, P= 0.021 vs. NP: rho= -0.37, P= 0.332) only for the LP group. In conclusion, LP and NP resistance training induced similar benefits on upper-body isometric force and SMM in sarcopenic older adults. However, LP presented lower total weight lifted, suggesting that it is possible to obtain similar gains in isometric force and SMM with less total work.