Effect of flavonoids isolated from Tridax procumbens on the growth and toxin production of Microcystis aeruginos
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The excessive proliferation of toxin producing cyanobacteria constitutes a significant health risk to the environment and humans. This is due to the contamination of potable water and accumulation of cyanotoxins in plant and animal tissues. As a means of controlling bloom forming cyanobacteria, secondary metabolites with pro-oxidative activities from plants are used to treat water bodies contaminated with cyanobacterial blooms and their associated toxins. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the mechanism of action of extract, fractions and isolated flavonoids of Tridax procumbens L. on Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing. by monitoring changes in growth, oxidative stress, antioxidant response, and cyanatoxin microcystins (MCs) production. The extract, fraction 3 and the isolated flavonoids significantly reduced the cell density of the cyanobacterium. Furthermore, the extract and fraction 3 increased the production of reactive oxygen species, induced lipid peroxidation, and altered antioxidant enzyme activities of M. aeruginosa. The total MCs content of the cyanobacterium was negatively affected by the presence of the extract, fractions and isolated flavonoids. The present study show that T. procumbens has secondary metabolites that are capable of interfering with the physiology and microcystins production of M. aeruginosa. These characteristics are promising for the control of this noxious cyanobacterium in aquatic ecosystems.