Prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus increases developmental defects in the enamel of offspring
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Background and objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term maternal and perinatal repercussions. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term consequences of intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia on Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) in offspring. Results Overall, 50 children of women with GDM and 250 children of normoglycemic women participated, the latter serving as controls. Children were examined at the age between 3 and 12 years. In addition to physical examination, two independent observers examined and rated photographs to identify specific types of DDE in a blinded fashion. Among offspring of mothers with GDM, rates of DDE (all types combined) and hypoplasia (specific type) were significantly higher (p<0.001, p = 0.04), in comparison to offspring of normoglycemic mothers. Considering only the affected teeth (1060 in GDM category; 5499 in controls), rates of DDE (all types combined) were significantly higher for total teeth (p <0.001) and deciduous teeth (p<0.001), but not permanent teeth. In specific types of DDE involving deciduous teeth, rates of demarcate opacity were significantly higher (p<0.001; canine and 2nd mandibular molars) and hypoplasia (p <0.001; 2nd maxillary molars and 2nd mandibular molars). In permanent teeth, the rate of diffuse opacity in association with GDM was significantly higher (p<0.001; maxillary central incisors and 1st maxillary molars). Conclusion GDM was associated with the adverse effects of DDE on offspring. This study lays the foundation for future studies to determine the impact of GDM on long-term risk of DDE.
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