Anomalous values and missing data in clinical and experimental studies
Valores anômalos e dados faltantes em estudos clínicos e experimentais
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During analysis of scientific research data, it is customary to encounter anomalous values or missing data. Anomalous values can be the result of errors of recording, typing, measurement by instruments, or may be true outliers. This review discusses concepts, examples and methods for identifying and dealing with such contingencies. In the case of missing data, techniques for imputation of the values are discussed in, order to avoid exclusion of the research subject, if it is not possible to retrieve information from registration forms or to re-address the participant.