Effects of an Er,Cr:YSGG Laser on Bone Regeneration in Critical-Sized Calvarial Defects of Rats Exposed to Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke
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Objective: To evaluate the effect of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser on healing of critical-sized calvarial defects (CSDs) in rats submitted to inhalation of cigarette smoke. Background: Smoking has been implicated with the delay in the bone healing after osteotomy procedures, then the use of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser for osteotomy in smokers could be an alternative to the conventional drills. Methods: One hundred animals were randomly allocated into four groups: Trephine-The CSDs were made with a trephine drill in healthy rats; Er,Cr:YSGG-The CSDs were made with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in healthy rats; Trephine-S-The CSDs were made with a trephine drill in rats exposed to cigarette smoke; and Er,Cr:YSGG-S-The CSDs were made with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. The inhalation of cigarette smoke started 7 days before the surgical procedure until euthanasia (immediately, 7, 15, 30, or 60 days after the surgical procedure). A histometric analysis and a histological description were performed to evaluate (1) the residual linear lengths and bone formation in the CSDs; (2) the quality of bone healing. Results: The use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser induces more bone formation compared with the trephine in smokers; however, the closure of the CSD was only superior in the Er,Cr:YSGG-S group compared to the Trephine-S group at the 60-day period. Conclusions: The use of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser stimulated the bone repair process after osteotomy procedures in animals submitted to exposure of inhalation of cigarette smoke.