Metabolomics for predicting hyperglycemia in pregnancy: A protocol for a systematic review and potential meta-analysis
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Background: Hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HIP) has been recently differentiated between diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The proposed protocol is relevant, and clinical concern is due to the higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) and long-term effects on both the mother and the fetus. Fasting plasma glucose level (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) are current diagnostic tools. However, controversy persists concerning diagnostic criteria, cut-off points, and even selective or universal screening. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the performance of metabolomic markers in the prediction of HIP. Methods: This is a protocol for a systematic review with potential meta-analysis. The primary outcome is GDM, defined as glucose intolerance identified in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (any FPG ≥ 92 mg/dL and < 126 mg/dL OR when 75-g OGTT shows one altered value among these: FPG ≥ 92 mg/dL or 1-h post glucose load ≥ 180 mg/dL or 2-h post glucose load ≥ 153 mg/dL); the secondary outcome is HIP, defined as hyperglycemia detected in the first trimester of pregnancy (any FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL). A detailed systematic literature search will be carried out in electronic databases and conference abstracts, using the keywords gestational diabetes mellitus, metabolomics, pregnancy, and screening (and their variations). We will include original peer-reviewed articles published from Jan 1, 1999, to Dec 31, 2018. Original studies including diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy (T2DM and T1DM), multiple pregnancies, and congenital malformations will be excluded. All results regarding samples, participant characteristics, metabolomic techniques, and diagnostic accuracy measures will be retrieved and analyzed. Since this is a systematic review, no ethical approval is necessary. Discussion: This systematic review may have the potential to provide significant evidence-based findings on the prediction performance of metabolomics. There are short and long-term repercussions for the mother and the newborn. Therefore, both may benefit from an accurate prediction technique for HIP.