Knock knock, who's there?: marine invertebrates in tubes of Ceriantharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa)
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This study reports on the fauna found in/on tubes of 10 species of Ceriantharia and discusses the characteristics of these occurrences, as well as the use of mollusc shells in ceriantharian tube construction. A total of 22 tubes of Ceriantharia from Argentina, Brazil, Japan, Norway, Portugal and the United States were analysed, revealing 58 species of marine invertebrates using them as alternative substrates. Based on a literature review and analyses of the sampled material, we report new occurrences for Photis sarae (Crustacea), Microgaza rotella (Mollusca), Brada sp., Dipolydora spp., Notocirrus spp., and Syllis garciai (Annelida). The use of mollusc shells in tube construction increases the tubes' structural resistance and strength. Ceriantharian tubes are suitable alternative substrates for the dwelling of numerous tubicolous and infaunal species that usually burrow into sediments or anchor on fixed or mobile habitats seeking shelter, thus playing a relevant role as local biodiversity hotspots.