Orange juice associated with a balanced diet mitigated risk factors of metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial
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In this 12 weeks randomized parallel controlled trial, we investigated whether the daily intake of orange juice (OJ) associated with a balanced diet attenuates risk factors in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and reverses this condition. Patients were divided into two groups: control (n = 36) and OJ (n = 36), which adopted a balanced diet according to the MetS guidelines. In addition, the OJ group consumed 500 mL/d OJ, maintaining the recommended dietary energy intake but adding more vitamin C (133%) and folic acid (43%) than controls. After the intervention, both groups showed a mean reduction of glucose (−3%), cholesterol (−7.5%), HDLC (−8%), BMI (−2%), waist circumference (−5.5%), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (−8% and −9.5%, respectively). However, only the OJ group decreased insulin (−9%), insulin resistance (- 8%), LDL-C (−4%), CRP (−28%) and higher hsCRP levels (−61%), while the control group reduced exclusively triglycerides (−8.4%). Both groups showed a slight increase in antioxidant capacity (1%). The reversion of MetS to normality was similar in both groups: 12 out of 36 controls (33%) and 13 out of 36 subjects supplemented with OJ (36%). MetS reversal was due to a decrease in the risk factors, such as systolic pressure in the controls, and high glucose, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and LDL-C, without altering HDL-C, in the OJ group. In conclusion, both treatments reduced risk factors and together reversed more than 30% MetS to normal, but the addition of OJ mitigated more risk factors than the balanced diet alone. (NCT 03301675).