Chromosomal mapping of repetitive sequences in Hyphessobrycon eques (Characiformes, Characidae): a special case of the spreading of 5S rDNA clusters in a genome
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Cytogenetic data showed a variation in diploid chromosome number in the genus Hyphessobrycon ranging from 2n = 46 to 52, and studies involving repetitive DNA sequences are scarce in representatives of this genus. The purpose of this paper was the chromosomal mapping of repetitive sequences (rDNA, histone genes, U snDNA and microsatellites) and investigation of the amplification of 5S rDNA clusters in the Hyphessobrycon eques genome. Two H. eques populations displayed 2n = 52 chromosomes, with the acrocentric pair No. 24 bearing Ag-NORs corresponding with CMA3+/DAPI−. FISH with a 18S rDNA probe identified the NORs on the short (p) arms of the acrocentric pairs Nos. 22 and 24. The 5S rDNA probe visualized signals on almost all chromosomes in genomes of individuals from both populations (40 signals); FISH with H3 histone probe identified two chromosome pairs, with the pericentromeric location of signals; FISH with a U2 snDNA probe identified one chromosome pair bearing signals, on the interstitial chromosomal region. The mononucleotide (A), dinucleotide (CA) and tetranucleotide (GATA) repeats were observed on the centromeric/pericentromeric and/or terminal positions of all chromosomes, while the trinucleotide (CAG) repeat showed signals on few chromosomes. Molecular analysis of 5S rDNA and non-transcribed spacers (NTS) showed microsatellites (GATA and A repeats) and a fragment of retrotransposon (SINE3/5S-Sauria) inside the sequences. This study expanded the available cytogenetic data for H. eques and demonstrated to the dispersion of the 5S rDNA sequences on almost all chromosomes.