Risk factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia in cardiovascular diseases
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Some conditions consolidated as risk factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia have already been identified in other diseases, such as neurological. Studies on cardiovascular diseases concentrate in individuals in the postoperative period; thus, it is unknown if these same factors occur in individuals hospitalized for clinical or surgical treatment of these diseases. Objective: to correlate predictive risk factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia in individuals with cardiovascular disease admitted at a reference cardiology hospital. Methodology: This is a retrospective clinical study. Medical records of 175 individuals hospitalized for clinical and/or surgical treatment at a reference cardiology hospital from January to June 2017, attendants of the Speech-Language Pathology and Nutrition team, were analyzed. Of these, 100 records were included in the study: 41 females and 59 males (mean age 67.56 years). Deaths and individuals from 0 to 18 years were excluded. Stroke, malnutrition, age and prolonged orotracheal intubation were considered predictive risk factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia. Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Stroke (OR=2.93 p=0.02), malnutrition (OR=2.89 p=0.02) and prolonged orotracheal intubation (OR=3.94 p=0.02) were statistically significant predictors for oropharyngeal dysphagia within this population. Age below 80 years was not significant (p=0.06), but within octogenarians, significance was found (p=0.033). Conclusion: Stroke, malnutrition, prolonged orotracheal intubation and age > 80 years are predictive risk factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia in adult population with cardiovascular diseases.