Records of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on humans and distribution of spotted-fever cases and its tick vectors in Paraná State, southern Brazil
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Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is the deadliest rickettsiosis in the world. Although the epidemiology of the disease has been established in Brazil, there are still limited data available on distribution of tick vectors and tick species parasitizing humans in the country, particularly in Paraná State. The State of Paraná is located in the southern region of the country and is covered by two biomes: Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado. Thus, the aims of this study were i) to map the distribution of SF tick vectors, ii) to describe and map the distribution of human parasitism by ticks, and iii) to map the distribution of fatal and non-fatal spotted fever (SF) cases in Paraná State, southern Brazil. Data were reviewed and compiled from previous published reports, and also from two scientific collections of Paraná State. SF cases were retrieved from the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System. A total of 50 cases of human parasitism by ticks were recorded, with a total of 64 (22 males, 12 females, 30 nymphs) ticks collected. The following 12 tick species were identified: Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parkeri, Amblyomma scalpturatum, Amblyomma sculptum, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.). The most prevalent tick species associated to cases of human parasitism were A. sculptum (13/50; 26 %), A. aureolatum (10/50; 20 %), A. brasiliense (5/50; 10 %), A. ovale (5/50; 10 %) and A. parkeri (4/50; 8%). A total of 51 non-fatal and five fatal SF cases were recorded. Data from this study highlights the need for monitoring ticks parasitizing humans aiming early detection of tick-borne diseases cases, particularly BSF in Paraná State, southern Brazil.